What is thermosphere?
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What Does thermosphere Mean
Thermosphere , a term that is also accepted by the Royal Academy Spanish without tilde ( thermosphere ), is one of the layers that make up the atmosphere of the Earth . It is the layer that is located beyond 85 kilometers in height and that extends, according to some experts, up to 1,000 kilometers away from the surface of our planet.
An atmosphere is the gaseous mantle around a celestial body. In the case of planet Earth , five different layers are recognized in the atmosphere. Closer to the planet 's surface is the troposphere , followed by the stratosphere , the mesosphere , the thermosphere and exosphere , in that order.
The thermosphere, therefore, is located between the mesosphere and the exosphere . In this layer, X-rays , gamma rays, and ultraviolet rays cause sodium molecules and atoms to ionize , increasing the temperature . Due to this particularity, the thermosphere is also known as the ionosphere .
The phenomenon called ionization belongs to both the field of chemistry and physics, and it deals with the way in which ions are generated , that is, molecules or atoms with an electrical charge , given the lack or excess of electrons relative to a neutral molecule or atom. There are several ways to find the formation of an ion. Within this scope, the chemical species that has fewer electrons than its original neutral form, and has a net positive charge , is known by the name of cation ; the anion represents the opposite concept, with more electrons and a net negative charge.
In the thermosphere, polar auroras occur , phenomena that originate when the gas particles in the layer receive energy from the sun, and that appear in the form of luminescence at night, usually at the poles, but also They can be seen in various parts of the planet for short periods. Note that the temperature in the thermosphere can reach 1500 ° C .
There are two types of polar aurora : the boreal , which occurs in the northern hemisphere, and the southern , in the south. The most suitable months for its observation depend on the hemisphere: in the north, from September to March; in the south, from March to September. From the European continent, the normal thing is that the aurora appears on the horizon and that it presents a reddish appearance. In all cases, it is a spectacle of nature like few others.
The space shuttles used to operate in the thermosphere. Since 2000 , the International Space Station has been in this atmospheric layer, where it orbits with at least two people on board without interruption.
The International Space Station is dedicated to research tasks in the thermosphere. It is managed, administered and developed by an international cooperation made up of the United States, Japan and Russia, among other countries. The teams of personnel working on board the station are rotating, and are made up of researchers and astronauts from the five space agencies participating in this project: NASA, the Japan Space Exploration Agency, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency .
It is noteworthy that in the thermosphere usually destroy or disintegrate the meteoroids ; when this does not happen, then they will reach the surface of our planet under the name of meteorites . This protective action against the smaller bodies of the solar system has been captured in various stories, many of which have been made into movies. The thermosphere, on the other hand, facilitates television and radio transmissions by reflecting electromagnetic waves.