What is the Julian Calendar?

What Does Julian Calendar Mean

The Julian calendar is known as the calendar model introduced by the Roman military and political leader Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC, that is, ab Urbe condita , “since the founding of Rome”). This calendar model came into force since the Roman conquest of Egypt, and was the predominant one in Europe and its colonies until 1582, when it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, with a greater precision of 0.002%.

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The appearance of this calendar unified replaced the lunar calendars of many cultures ancient , such as calendars traditional Etruscans and Latins, unifying the Roman world and its colonies around the same model, heir to the solar calendar Egypt, the first of which is news , developed in remote antiquity to try to predict the floods of the Nile.

In fact, the Roman Empire was governed based on a pagan calendar of 304 days distributed in 10 months, whose irregularities and lags were corrected according to economic and political needs (such as the time to pay the workers or the delay of the votes of the Republic), adding the month of Mercedonius biennially.

The Julian calendar introduced a regular year of 365.25 days across 12 months , with a leap day introduced between February 23 and 24 every 4 years. For this, a year of 445 days, called the “last year of confusion”, had to be counted during the year prior to its implementation. The idea of ​​numbering the days arose later, inherited from the Visigoths, and was implemented by decision of Charlemagne.

The Julian calendar also took January 1 as the beginning of the year instead of March 1, as was customary. Later the months of quintilius and sextilius were renamed as July and August , in honor of the Roman emperors Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus, respectively. Other emperors tried to rename months at will, but failed in the attempt: Caligula wanted to call to September Germanicus , Nero wanted to call neronniano April and wanted to call Domitian Domitianus to October.

The mathematical considerations of the Julian calendar were taken despite the fact that it was already known, from ancient Greek astronomers, that the tropic year was slightly shorter than 365.25 days. Thus, this model calendar lost almost three days every four centuries . This motivated, during the Council of Trent (1545-1563), the need for a new model to correct the accumulated gap since the Council of Nicea (325).

It can help you: Gregorian calenda

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