What is TCP / IP protocol?

What Does TCP / IP protocol Mean

It called protocol to the set of rules and regulations that serve to guide a process or action . In the field of computing , the term refers to the guidelines used to establish a communication process between different systems.

TCP and IP , meanwhile, are acronyms that refer to two key protocols on the Internet . TCP comes from transmission control protocol , an expression that can be translated as “ transmission control protocol ” . IP , meanwhile, is the Internet protocol or “Internet protocol” .
The idea of the TCP / IP protocol , in this framework, is linked to the family of protocols that constitute the basis of the Internet structure , enabling data transmission between multiple computers. These are network protocols : criteria and standards that are responsible for determining how the components of an interconnection system have to communicate with each other.

The TCP / IP protocol was born in the early 1970s , when the Department of Defense of the United States applied it in a computer network called ARPANET . In 1982 , the North American authorities declared it as the standard for communications between the nation's military networks.
It is important to bear in mind that, according to the open systems interconnection model (called the OSI model ), there are different levels or layers in network protocols, from the physical layer to the application layer . While IP works at the network level (determining the route and address), TCP works at the transport level. Ultimately, it can be said that TCP is the intermediate level between IP and the application layer ( FTP , HTTP , etc.).
At present, almost all devices are connected to some network and generally use the TCP / IP protocol: from mobile phones to computers, through various electrical appliances, the Internet allows us all to communicate with remote servers via middle of a large information network .
As discussed in a previous paragraph, the TCP / IP protocol is a model for communication in networks that is based on OSI , a theory of layers of which TCP / IP uses four . However, the latter has a greater number of options, without neglecting that it is used in practice.
The ordered group of protocols that are organized in layers is called a stack . Understanding the main features of this concept is the basis of professional training for working with networks in general since it allows us to configure them.

One of the reasons why the TCP / IP protocol is used in so many areas is that it offers us a reliable transmission of the data that travels the network. This is achieved precisely thanks to the definition of each step to follow from the moment the data is sent (organized in small packets ) to its reception at the destination device.
It is in this respect that the layers are so necessary to maintain order and security, precisely because this system allows only the one who is "below them" to request services and the one who is "above them". »To send them the results.
Some advantages of the TCP / IP protocol:
* can work on many devices of different characteristics with different operating systems;
* suitable for large and medium-sized, professional and home networks;
* is compatible with analysis and monitoring tools;
* is widely used, and that indirectly increases its compatibility with pre-existing networks.
Some disadvantages of the TCP / IP protocol:
* there is no clear distinction between services, protocols and interfaces, making it difficult to develop technologies based on it;
* if traffic is low in volume, speed may be unsatisfactory;
* its performance is not very good on print or file servers.

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