What is substitution reaction?

What Does substitution reaction Mean

As has become customary when establishing a definition, the first step that must be carried out is to determine the etymological origin of the words that shape the term. In this case, it is the following:

-Reaction derives from Latin and is the result of the sum of the prefix "re", which means "backwards", and "actio", which in turn emanates from the verb "agere" (to do ).

-Substitution, on the other hand, also comes from Latin, specifically from “substitutio”, which is equivalent to “effect or action of putting something or someone in place of another”. This Latin word is made up of three defined parts: the prefix “sub-” (below); the verb “statuere” (to place) and the suffix “-ción” (action and effect).

A chemical reaction occurs when two or more substances interact and acquire different properties from alterations in their structure and their bonds. Through this produces, a substance that receives the name of reagent is transformed into another whose properties are different. The result of the reaction is called the product .

There are different kinds of reactions. The substitution reaction takes place when, in a compound, one atom or group of atoms is replaced by another. This means that, through reaction , one element displaces another element in the compound. That is why we also speak of a displacement reaction.
Likewise, we cannot forget that these substitution reactions can be of two fundamental types:

-Simple substitution, which is when a simple substance reacts with another compound, substituting one of its components.

-Double replacement. This also responds to the name of metathesis and is characterized in that the exchange occurs between two different compound elements, giving rise to new substances.
All this without overlooking that the reactions can be, depending on their mechanism, of the monomolecular or bimolecular nucleophilic class.
The atoms that enter the substrate (the molecule that harbors the substitution process) are known as the entering group , while the atoms expelled from that place are called the leaving group. What results from the substitution reaction is the product .
In addition to all the above, therefore, we have to emphasize that the substitution reaction is divided into four stages fundamentally that are defined by the role of the substrate, the entering or reactive group, the leaving group and the product.
If the reaction proceeds with ionic compounds in solution, an exchange of cations and anions occurs. In this case, the substitution reaction is called the double substitution reaction or the metathesis reaction .
An example of a substitution reaction occurs when copper is immersed in silver nitrate. Copper displaces the silver atoms, giving rise to a specific compound ( copper nitrate ).

Bromine and chlorine can also generate a substitution reaction. In this operation, chlorine replaces bromine. This reaction can be outlined with the following formula: Cl2 + NaBr -> NaCl + Br2

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