What is slope?
What Does slope Mean
The French word talus arrived in Castilian as talud . The term refers to the slope registered by the facing of a wall or surface . The idea of facing, for its part, is linked to the faces of a wall.
For engineering and architecture , the slope is the difference between the thickness of the lower sector of the wall and the thickness of the upper sector, creating a slope . This allows the wall to withstand the pressure exerted by the earth behind it.
Analyzing the stability of the slope is essential for the development of an architectural or civil engineering project. An unevenness and the nature of the materials can threaten this stability .
To protect a slope, various techniques can be used according to the type of work . The covering with stone or concrete and the planting of certain plant species are some of the possible measures.
It should be noted that, for geology , a slope is a cluster of pieces of rock that forms in the basin of a valley or at the base of a cliff. They generally show a concave, upward-facing appearance.
The continental slope , finally, is the natural underwater structure extending from the so - called continental shelf to a depth of about 2,000 meters or more. It is an area in decline where sediments from the continents accumulate .
The slope of the continental slope is usually between 5 ° and 7 ° . In any case, continental slopes with an inclination of more than 50 ° have been recorded .
Broadly speaking, therefore, we can say that for engineering the concept of slope is defined as a surface that is seen to be inclined with respect to one that is considered horizontal, so that it adopts said position temporarily or permanently. In almost all cases, the slope is made up of the same material as that found in the ground, and this includes reinforced concrete and rock, among others.
It is important to mention that before beginning the construction of an architectural project or a civil work, it is essential to study the slope thoroughly. At first glance, with respect to its structure, we can point out that two essential parts can be seen: its foot and its crest, which are the lowest and highest part, respectively.
There are two types of slope that are recognized in the engineering field, although within each one of them many peculiarities and variations can be studied. On the one hand, there is the natural slope , which is formed without human intervention, but rather throughout the evolution of geology itself; this receives the name of hillside . The artificial slope , on the other hand, is what man does, and does so for the construction of railroads, roads and other works.
When a slope breaks and causes the ground to move, it is referred to as a sliding movement . There are several possible causes for this phenomenon to take place . For example, in soils that form a slope with the help of water, instability is common. This causes them to move downwards, either by an external load or by the action of gravity, and if the resistance force decreases until it is below that which is opposed, a failure occurs.
Among the types of failure that occur most frequently on a slope, we can mention the following: local; by the foot; slip on previous faults; by movement; foundation or foot failure; rotational collapse; by translation; flow (in the uncemented forms); by erosion; slip on the surface ; liquefaction.