What is scientific psychology?

What Does scientific psychology Mean

The word psychology derives from the Greek psycho- ( "soul" , "mental activity" ) and -logy ( "study" ). It is the science that studies mental processes through three dimensions: cognitive , affective and behavioral .

And while, for its part, the second word that gives shape to the term that concerns us, scientific, we can determine that it has its etymological origin in Latin and more specifically in the word scire, which can be translated as “knowing”.
The scientific psychology , stripped of speculation and metaphysics, born in the nineteenth century . With psychophysics , which tries to measure the mental in a quantitative way and seeks to establish a link between the physical and the psychological, psychology becomes part of the objective sciences.

The first scientific psychology laboratory was established by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig ( Germany ). Since then, psychology has not stopped making advances in the empirical knowledge of mental processes and behavior.
That was a German psychologist and physiologist who marked a milestone with the launch of the aforementioned laboratory, but he also acquired great fame for all his work and work that have determined that he is now undoubtedly recognized as the father of structuralism.
A laboratory in which he was a pioneer and in which he developed his multiple studies and theories. However, this space also benefited later another series of illustrious characters who left their mark on scientific psychology. This would be the case, for example, of the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin who founded scientific psychiatry or the English psychologist Charles Spearman, who is known primarily for his contributions to psychology and statistics through his bifactorial theory.
However, we cannot ignore the role that figures such as Pierre Janet, a member of the so-called School of Paris, have played within the science we are addressing, who, among other things, carried out the theory of psychological automatism with which managed to explain the amnesic behaviors that occurred in people who suffer from split personality.
And all this without forgetting the use and study he made of hypnosis to solve hysteria problems.
In the twentieth century , American conductive psychology and Soviet psychology coincide in positivist experimental and epistemological approaches. In this way, the discipline is framed within the natural sciences and behavior replaces the mind as an object of study.
However, in the middle of the century, cognitive psychology recovers the study of mental processes, while maintaining the experimental methods of behaviorism . The notion that science is built from the empirical and objective is never abandoned.

The combination of behavioral and cognitive theories and practices has enabled the emergence of techniques to solve individual and social problems, along with the development of scientifically proven therapies .
Outside of scientific psychology were the alternative psychologies or pseudopsychologies, which reject the scientific method . One of these cases would be parapsychology , a discipline criticized by many specialists.

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