What is rune?

What Does rune Mean

The etymology of rune brings us to the Norse term rūn , linked to mysteries and secrets. The concept is used with reference to the characters that the ancient Scandinavians used to write in Germanic languages.

The Germanic languages belong to the Indo-European family and are mainly used by the Germanic peoples, a group of peoples that arose in the north of the European continent. Letters called runes were also used in the British Isles; on the other hand, throughout Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages and even before and during the phenomenon known as Christianization (in which many Europeans were converted to the Christian religion), runic alphabets were also used in Eastern and Central Europe.

In the runic alphabets , therefore, each character was known as a rune. The different runes, in this way, made it possible to form words. Variants of the Scandinavian alphabets that used runes are called futhark (young futhark, old futhark, etc.).
The word futhark, which is pronounced as if it were a grave word with a 'z' instead of the 'th', originated from the first six runes (which can be seen in the second image), whose transliteration is close to the following letters of our alphabet : F, U, Z (with the pronunciation typically used in Spain, which differs from the 's'), A, R and K. Since these letters underwent changes between English ancient and modern, the Anglo-Saxon variant of futhark is called futhorc .
It is possible to find testimonies of runic alphabets in the Noleby Stone (recorded around 600 ) and in the Rök Stone ( 800 ), to name two examples . Both are found in Sweden and feature texts written with runes.
However, the inscriptions of more remote origin may come from the year 150. In short, this alphabet was gradually replaced by the Latin through the conversion to Christianity, approximately in the 8th century in central Europe and, four centuries later in Scandinavia, when the Viking Age ended. Despite this phenomenon, Scandinavia continued to use runes until the early 1900s, mainly in rural Sweden for decorative purposes and in the development of runic calendars .
The runic calendar (also called the runic staff ) is a writing that can be found carved on staffs of various materials (such as wood, horn, stone or bone) or on parchments and is considered a Swedish medieval creation. It is a perpetual calendar , that is, it gives the user the possibility of knowing which day of the week corresponds to any date, which is in a range of several centuries.

When the runic alphabet is encrypted through the substitution of runes by other symbols , these characters are called cryptic runes or encrypted runes .
The ancient Scandinavians held that runes had a divine origin. For this reason, runes also have an esoteric connotation and are used for divination .
Runic stones or simply runes are called elements that have runes engraved on their surface. The diviner throws the runes on a table, causing the stones to be arranged at random. The person , in this way, reads the runes and can predict the future .
It is important to note that the reading of the runes in an esoteric sense is not supported by science . It is a practice that appeals to mysticism and the supernatural to anticipate future events: there is no scientific or rational criterion that corroborates the possibility of knowing what will happen in the future by reading the runes.

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