What is republic?

What Does republic Mean

From the Latin res publica ( "public thing" ), the republic is a form of organization of the State . In the republic, the highest authority serves for a specified time and is elected by citizens, either directly or through Parliament (whose members are also elected by the population).

By extension, the state that is organized in this way and all non- monarchical regimes is known as a republic . Another use of the term refers to the political body of society and the public cause (for example: “The corruption of ministers threatens the republic” , “The republic cannot bear the mistreatment of its officials” ).

The main channel of citizen participation in the republic is the vote . The elections must be free and the vote, secret. In this way, citizens can exercise their participation without pressure or conditioning.
It should be noted that many states that, throughout history , called themselves republics, did not allow their citizens to participate in elections or respect human rights. This is the case of totalitarian states such as China or the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ). Something similar also happens with the Islamic republics , which are based on the Koran and not on the Enlightenment (therefore, they are based on faith and religious beliefs).
Other fundamental principles for the functioning of the republic are, in addition to the active political participation of citizens, the division of powers, the realization of justice and the search for the common good.
The arduous road to Democracy
Although there is no form of government that can be considered ideal, it is important that within the systematic possibilities that are at our disposal, we opt for one that contemplates the rights of citizens . However, for a country to be able to organize itself and establish a government that does not fluctuate and that preserves peace and the normal functioning of the various organizations of the territory, it must first go through innumerable imbalances and difficulties.
As happened in many other countries, in Spain it took many years to achieve a democratic regime of this nature; so much so that two republics succeeded one another and both were broken by a coup d'état . Until finally one was established that still remains, despite the many problems that this entails.

The First Republic in Spain was proclaimed on February 11, 1873 and lasted until 1874 and was characterized by being extremely unstable, due to intense discord between the various sides that wanted to seize power in the country. It should be noted that, since it was constituted and until the next 11 months, it had four presidents; This project collapsed when the coup d'etat took place on January 3, 1874, which would put an end to the Republic.
Then for about 50 more years the Monarchy was installed in the peninsular territory, until a new revolution arose that would give rise to the Second Spanish Republic , on April 14, 1931 that would culminate in a new coup, after which Francisco Franco installed the dictatorship and which would be followed by many years of death and violence in Spain.
After such turbulent years, of situations of extreme misery and deprivation of all freedoms, and when Franco died, his successor, King Juan Carlos I vowed to comply with what was agreed in the Principles of the National Movement and promoted the Referendum for the Reform Policy that started the Spanish Transition until later consolidating parliamentary democracy .

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