What is preoperative?

What Does preoperative Mean

The first thing that must be made clear about the preoperative term that we are going to analyze is that it is a neologism made up of the sum of several Latin components:

• The prefix “pre-”, which means “before”.

• The verb “operai ”, which can be translated as“ doing a job ”.

• The suffix “-torium”, which is used to indicate that it contributes to achieving a certain effect.

The concept of preoperative is used in the field of medicine and allows to name what takes place in the stages prior to a surgical operation . The usual thing is that, before an intervention , the patient must meet certain requirements and respect the doctor's instructions so that the operation has a greater probability of success.

The preoperative analysis usually begins with an evaluation of the patient, reviewing his medical history. Sometimes, the person is already admitted to the health center before the operation (for example, due to having suffered an accident), so it is likely that certain tests have been carried out previously. In other cases, the individual just approaches the hospital to be operated on, which means that preoperative studies are carried out at that time.
The intention is to evaluate how the patient will react to the anesthesia and the pressures to which his body will be subjected by the surgical intervention. In some cases, antibiotics are given preoperatively to prevent possible infections.
Although each preoperative varies according to the operation in question and the severity of the patient, the examinations usually include blood and urine tests, pressure control , electrocardiogram and taking X-ray films.
In the same way, we must not forget that there is also what is known as preoperative fasting. As its name suggests, it is that before an operation, the time determined by the doctors, the person who is going to undergo it does not take any type of food. And it is the way that very harmful complications to health cannot occur due to anesthesia.
Specifically, the usual thing is that the corresponding rules are followed with respect to the aforementioned preoperative fast:

• The patient should not eat any type of meat, fried or fat for what would be eight hours before the so-called induction is applied anesthetic.

• In the same way, it must be borne in mind that you can only drink liquids, mainly water, up to two hours before that.

• It is also established that six hours before anesthesia you can take at most toast.
The psychological aspect is also important in the preoperative period. The doctor must contain the person who is about to undergo the operation, providing him with all the necessary information to satisfy his doubts and reduce the fear or concern that is inevitable before the intervention.

This preoperative stress tends to appear in many patients. Therefore, it is necessary to have the aforementioned psychological help because, in addition to the above, it will contribute to less muscle tension, to improve the state of the immune system or to achieve a faster recovery.
It is likely that many members of the surgical team will ask the patient the same questions during the preoperative period, to ensure that they have all the information that guarantees a successful operation. This may be a bit annoying for some, but it is important to remain calm and understand the purpose of such questioning; on the other hand, for certain patients there is something relaxing in that kind of symphony that unfolds around them until the anesthesia completes its work and they completely lose consciousness to, in the best of cases, wake up renewed.
Before an operation, a patient must meet with their surgeon or primary care physician to carry out a preoperative checkup and, in some cases, this may occur within a month prior to the intervention. Professionals should check the health of the person in recent years to know how to treat a potential complication that occurs while the person is unconscious. One of the most important points in this regard is the history of allergies.
Además de la reunión con un médico durante el preoperatorio, algunos hospitales solicitan a los futuros pacientes de cirugía que se reúnan con el personal de enfermería la semana previa a la intervención, para responder a otra serie de preguntas acerca de su salud. Así como en la primera visita se efectúan ciertos exámenes físicos, en este caso es probable que se requieran pruebas complementarias.
El anestesiólogo es otro de los profesionales esenciales durante una operación y el preoperatorio puede incluir una reunión con él. Por último, dependiendo de ciertas condiciones, es probable que el cirujano solicite la opinión de los siguientes especialistas:
* un cardiólogo, para los pacientes mayores de 55 años, fumadores, con un historial de problemas cardíacos, con diabetes o hipertensión, o incluso para quienes no tienen un buen estado físico;
* un diabetólogo, en caso de diabetes o de haber obtenido un nivel alto de azúcar en el examen de la consulta preoperatoria;
* un hematólogo, para pacientes que hayan tenido coágulos de sangre.

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