What is organic compound?

What Does organic compound Mean

The notion of organic compound refers to a substance that contains carbon . A compound is something made up of two or more elements; the organic , meanwhile, refers to that which has carbon as a component part of a living being.

Before moving on to these ideas , it is important to dwell on the definition of carbon. This is the name of the chemical element whose symbol is C and its atomic number is 6 , with a great display in nature and an enormous biological significance.
Organic compounds, in short, have carbon. They can also have nitrogen , phosphorus , oxygen and other elements. They are generally produced naturally, although there are man-made organic compounds that are generated through chemical synthesis.

In this way, organic compounds (also known as organic molecules ) can be divided into natural or artificial . Natural organic compounds are called biomolecules and are those that are synthesized by living things, such as vitamins and proteins. The artificial organic compounds , meanwhile, are manufactured by humans and have no existence in nature, such as plastics.
All organic compounds share the fact that they have carbon as a central component. Carbon molecules are easily linked together in chains that can take various shapes and reach different lengths.
It is important to note that, because carbon atoms have a valence of 4 and can establish double or triple bonds , they are in a position to form highly complex organic compounds.
Without a very defined criterion , it is possible to classify organic compounds into aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic, organometallic, and polymer . The former are also known as aliphatic hydrocarbons and are made up of hydrogen and carbon. If its chain takes the form of a ring then it is called acyclic , while otherwise we must speak of cyclical . Of the first group, the simplest are alkanes; the second, on the other hand, cycloalkanes.
With regard to aromatic organic compounds , we can say that they are those that have at least one ring with pi bonds (two lobes of one orbital overlap with two of another) that are delocalized around them. Note that aliphatic compounds do not have such delocalization. Their name refers to the fact that many of them exhibit a pleasant or sweet aroma, and were assigned to them before scientists understood the physical mechanism behind this phenomenon .

Heterocyclic organic compounds , on the other hand, are those in which each atom that is part of the cycle belongs to two or more different elements. With regard to the elements that compose it, at least we can find carbon atoms accompanied by a different one, which are usually sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen and are known as heteroatoms . According to the number of unsaturations per cycle they can be classified as saturated and unsaturated .
On the other hand, organometallic compounds are those that exhibit covalent bonds between carbon atoms and metal atoms, whether single, double or triple , with a variable polarity . It should be mentioned that the metallic elements can also be nonmetals or metalloids . Regardless, no matter which of these three types of elements are included in an organometallic compound, they will always have a lower electronegativity value than carbon.
The last place in the organic compound classification is occupied by the polymer , a substance that includes macromolecules of units called monomers linked by covalent bonds. Broadly speaking, synthetics (polyethylene and other plastics) can be distinguished from natural ones (proteins, DNA) , but they all play an important role in various aspects of our lives.

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