What is nomenclature?

What Does nomenclature Mean

From the Latin nomenclatūra , the nomenclature is a list of names of people or things. In biology , nomenclature is a sub-discipline of taxonomy that is responsible for regulating the names of taxa. In this way, confusion is avoided and the organization of scientific knowledge is facilitated.

The chemical nomenclature is the set of rules that are used to name the existing combinations between elements and chemical compounds. As in the case of biological nomenclature, there is an international authority in charge of establishing these rules.
In this field we have to underline the fact that the origin of the aforementioned nomenclature is found in a document that was presented and published at the end of the 18th century. Specifically, it was in the year 1787 when the publication of "Méthode de nomenclature chimique" was carried out.

Several scientists were those who were in charge of making the one that was based on the composition of the chemical elements that were the protagonists of it. Specifically, these chemists were Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, Antoine-François de Fourcroy, Claude Louis Berthollet and Antoine Lavoisier.
In addition to all the above, we have to make it clear that there are two different systems. One is for nomenclature for inorganic compounds and another for organic compounds.
The first of those, commonly known as the “Red Book”, is based on two fundamental criteria when it comes to naming the compounds. On the one hand, the number of chemical elements that compose them is taken into account and on the other hand the chemical function that they are responsible for performing.
From the second nomenclature system, that of organic compounds, we could highlight that it is subdivided in turn into several more systems: the functional radical, additive, substitution, replacement or multiplicative. All this without overlooking the fact that there are others that are classified as specials.
Of course, any of the two general systems mentioned within the chemical nomenclature is governed by the rules imposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It is an entity that was put into operation in the 1920s.
It is known as the combined nomenclature to the codes of the merchandise of the common customs system of the European Union (EU) . This nomenclature was adopted in 1987 .
The nomenklatura or Soviet nomenclature is a concept that allows to name the elite of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) that directed the state bureaucracy. The nomenklatura held the main administrative positions and enjoyed privileges derived from its functions.
The nomenklatura began as a list of jobs with high responsibilities to be performed by members of the Communist Party . Over time, the word began to be used to refer to the people who held those positions and performed the jobs. Being part of the nomenklatura, therefore, implied a certain function in the state apparatus and various social benefits.

Many Soviet thinkers criticized the nomenklatura since they considered that it violated the essence of communism , by constituting itself as a privileged class within what, in theory, should be a society of equals.

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