What is nanometer?

What Does nanometer Mean

Nanometer is a measure of length whose symbol is nm . It is a unit equal to one billionth of a meter .

If we divide 1 meter into 1 billion, therefore, each part obtained is equal to 1 nanometer (1 nm). A nanometer is also equal to one millionth fraction of a millimeter .
As you can see, the concept of nanometer is used to refer to very small elements . Its use is frequent in the field of information and communication technologies, for example to refer to the different generations of semiconductors .

Each generation of computer processor presents several improvements over the previous one, such as new instructions, higher performance and a smaller size of transistor, the most important and smallest part of any electronic device. Since it can have two states, which are usually symbolized by 0 and 1 , the transistor is able to emulate the basic way in which a bit behaves, allowing or preventing energy from passing through.
With a minimum of one transistor it is possible to develop a logic gate to perform low complexity mathematical operations . With one or more of these logic gates, certain basic operations can be emulated for the management of the instructions of the so-called machine language , the code system that the processor can interpret directly.
Thanks to advances in technology, large companies are able to reduce the size of transistors to levels that in the early days of computing would have been impossible to imagine. Every certain number of years, we see that this value in nanometers is less and less: 65, 45, 32, 22, 14 ... As it gets smaller, its performance also increases, since it uses less electrical energy to comply with the same tasks.
Transistors are present in a wide range of electronic components beyond microprocessors, although the speed at which their technologies advance may be very different: the race, so to speak, that characterizes the development of CPUs in the computer market. it is way ahead of what other industries can carry out.
In the case of banks, for example, where information is extremely important and is transmitted through very high-speed private networks, the size of the transistors is usually much smaller than what we can find in a computer store . Let's not forget that the security of our money depends on the processors of these entities.
Between 2004 and 2020, the size of the transistors of the processors manufactured by Intel has decreased at a practically constant rate, going from 90 to 5 nanometers , an evolution really worthy of being admired.

The nanotechnology , in turn, work with materials that are measured in nanometers. Molecular biology and organic chemistry are two disciplines linked to nanotechnology.
Particles measured in nanometers are very important in biology and medicine. The lungs , to name one case, are known to filter particles of at least two hundred nanometers; if they are smaller, they can move through the body and cause various damages. The hair of a person, on the other hand, has a diameter of no more than 80 000 nanometers.
Wavelength measurement is also done in nanometers. In this framework, it is relevant to mention that light visible to humans has a wavelength of between 400 and 700 nanometers approximately.
The eye of a subject, therefore, can perceive the waves that, in the electromagnetic spectrum, have a length in the mentioned range. If the length is shorter or longer, it is not in a position to detect the wave.

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