What is monophase?

What Does monophase Mean

The adjective monophasic and its feminine variant monophasic are used in the field of electricity . Monophasic current is called that which is alternating and travels through two conductors .

It should be remembered that an electrical current is formed with the flow of electrical charges that circulates through a conductor (a body that has the ability to conduct electricity). When it always flows in the same direction, it is a direct current ; On the other hand, if the sense is modified periodically, we speak of alternating current .
Returning to the idea of single-phase current , it is an alternating electric current that travels through a pair of conductors. A single-phase device , in this framework, is fed with a current of this type.

On the other hand, a single- phase system is called one that is formed by a single alternating current and whose voltage does not vary. Ultimately, this electricity production and distribution system consists of a single phase: the current travels through a single cable .
The domestic or residential electricity is usually monophasic. A single alternating current signal reaches the houses, transmitted by a phase wire . The circuit is closed with the return by a neutral wire , while a ground wire is also included that works as a protection element. There is a potential difference between the phase wire and the neutral wire, which in most countries is 220V .
The electrical appliances that have a power of 220 V are single phase. Compared to three-phase equipment , they consume less energy and are cheaper.
There is also the concept of a single-phase motor , as opposed to the three-phase motor . It is one that requires much less maintenance and lasts much longer. It is generally used in those devices that require low power levels, for which a three-phase motor would be inefficient. It is important to highlight the latter, since "more is better" not always, especially when with the minimum option it is possible to meet technical needs .
The single-phase motor does not generate its own magnetic field , and for this reason it is necessary to activate it by means of a switch, among other options, so that its rotor begins to move. Once this happens, a magnetic field is created, which allows the motor to run.
Regarding the uses of the single-phase motor, we can say that the devices that include it are usually small and of low power , generally less than one horsepower; some common examples are fans, coolers, compressors, portable drills, and pumps.

The single-phase motor is manufactured in several classes, among which we find the starting capacitor, the split- phase motor , the permanent capacitor, the wound rotor, the two-valve capacitor, and the shaded pole capacitor. As in many other cases, all of them present their own advantages and disadvantages that must be studied in each particular case to choose the one that best suits the needs of the device.
Each type of single-phase motor, in fact, offers certain benefits that make it especially efficient for a particular appliance . With respect to other types of motors, single-phase are cheaper to manufacture. Starter capacitors, for example, are used in most cases, since they have a balanced performance that is very versatile.
From a mechanical point of view, single-phase motors are not very complex, although this does not guarantee their perfect operation or the absolute absence of damage. Among the most common problems are overheating and abnormal slowness.

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