What is monism?

What Does monism Mean

The first thing we are going to do, before delving into the meaning of the term monism, is to know its etymological origin. In this case, we can state that it derives from Greek, since it is the result of the sum of two lexical components of that language:

-The word “monkeys”, which can be translated as “unique” or “alone”.

-The suffix “-ismo”, which is used to indicate “doctrine” or “philosophy”.

Monism is called a philosophical position , shared by different systems and doctrines, which affirms that all the phenomena and beings in the universe are made up of a primary substance . This primordial reason was known in Ancient Greece as arché or arjé .
Monistic conceptions coincide in postulating an idea or fundamental cause from which all the elements of reality derive. The material monism of today, for example, considers that the first matter was that which was formed with the big bang .

The pantheistic monism , meanwhile, posits God as a basic principle, while the spiritual monism does the same with the spirit. There is also a neutral monism that ensures that the origin of the universe is not mental but neither is it physical, but is found in a neutral or basic matter that exceeds the qualification in these parameters.
Thales of Mileto , Baruch Espinoza , David Hume , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx are some of the philosophers who resorted to monism in their analyzes and reflections. From ancient times to today, numerous thinkers have studied the nature of things and the relationships between the mind and the physical.
In addition to Thales of Miletus, we have to indicate that the so-called pre-Socratic philosophers, before Socrates, were monists and each had a very specific conception of the so-called monism. We are referring to figures such as the following: -

Heraclitus of Ephesus (546 - 480 BC), came to expose that the basic and fundamental element that existed was fire. Hence it was clear to him that everything that existed was part of a combustion cycle.

-Pitágoras de Samos (571 - 497 BC) believed, for his part, that the aforementioned essential and essential element were numbers. For this reason he was convinced that everything could be explained using mathematical theorems and formulas.

-Parmenides of Elea, who was born around 515 BC in Elea, had the idea that everything was what it was and if something was not, it was because it did not exist.

-Anaximenes of Miletus (550 - 480 BC) was a pre-Socratic philosopher who, for his part, considered that the basic and fundamental element was none other than air.
Philosophers these who formed a group that also included others such as Anaximander or even Leucippus of Miletus.

Monism can be framed in the so-called philosophy of the spirit or philosophy of the mind , which is centered on thoughts, emotions, fantasies, perceptions, dreams and sensations. This branch of philosophy examines different questions of epistemology and ontology to try to establish what is mental and what is not.

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