What is microorganism?

What Does microorganism Mean

A microorganism is a tiny organism that can only be seen through a microscope . It is a unicellular living being that can also be referred to as a microbe , a term derived from the French microbe .

The human eye cannot see microorganisms with the naked eye. The only way to detect these beings is by using a microscope, which is an instrument created precisely for the observation of very small elements.
Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek are among the scientists who, in the 17th century , made the first observations of microorganisms using microscopes. Thus, over the years, it was possible to discover how milk is transformed into cheese and how grapes make it possible to obtain wine , for example.

Leeuwenhoek is praised for his discoveries in the field of microbiology. He was born in 1632 and was a Dutch merchant who not only was ahead of the rest in the use of the microscope , but also improved his manufacturing techniques. Hooke, for his part, was a contemporary scientist, born in England and interested in various fields, including medicine and biology.
In 1665, Hooke published a book called Micrographia , in which he describes his observations through the microscope and coined the term cell , fundamental in science today. Returning to the phenomena that make it possible to transform grapes into wine and milk into cheese, it is important to note that before Leeuwenhoek discovered microorganisms it was not known why they occurred, nor was it understood why food products spoiled.
Of course, Leeuwenhoek's work was not enough to explain all the concepts that today are part of scientific knowledge; in particular, he pointed out that there were forms of life too small to be seen with the naked eye . Other important names in this path of discovery about microorganisms were Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur , who put an end to the idea that life arose from dead substances spontaneously in the middle of deterioration.
Spallanzani, naturalist and religious Italian born in 1729, found that the boil broth culture could be sterilized, ie, kill microorganisms that were in it. In addition, he understood that for other microorganisms to settle, he had to expose the broth to the air. The French chemist Pasteur, born in 1822, complemented these discoveries by exposing broths to the air, covering the containers with filters to prevent them from mixing with external particles, and also using containers with curved tubes that prevented the broth from contacting the dust. Through his experiments he reinforced the idea that living organisms did not appear spontaneously, but came from outside.

The bacteria are microorganisms, to the same certain fungi . They are also acellular entities like viruses . The microbiology is the scientific specialty that takes care of his study.
Although there are microorganisms that are pathogenic (that is, they cause disease ), most microbes are not harmful to humans. In fact, many microorganisms play an important role in taking care of the decomposition of organic matter and even supplying oxygen to the atmosphere.
As for pathogenic microorganisms, they are those that have the ability to enter the body and multiply in it, generating an infection . Many of the infectious diseases are contagious: the affected person can spread it through their mucous membranes, their skin or their secretions.
The flu or flu , to cite one case, is an infectious disease caused by the virus of influenza . These microorganisms, once they infect the subject, can cause headache, myalgia , sore throat, cough and fever, among other inconveniences.

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