# What is micrometer?

## What Does micrometer Mean

A micrometer is a tool used to accurately measure a very small line or angle . Also known as a palmer , Palmer caliper or Palmer screw , it has a micrometric screw that allows measurements in a range of thousandths or hundredths of a millimeter.

The micrometer screw has a scale around it. To perform the measurement, the ends of the instrument must be progressively approached until the desired estimate is made.
Historical background
Throughout the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution, the need for measurements with particular precision arose . At that time, there were no instruments capable of measuring such small units, but the demands of the market prompted their creation.

The micrometer used to measure distances with the telescope

Among the first tests of tools capable of accurately scaling great distances to the lens of a telescope is that developed by Galileo Galilei in the 17th century to determine how far Jupiter was from its satellites.

In 1640, William Gascoigne invented the micrometer screw, which offered advantages over the Vernier scale for the measurement of angular distances through the microscope.
Creation and improvement
English inventor Henry Maudslay created one of the first micrometers in 1829 , based on his nation's metric system . Then the Frenchman Jean Laurent Palmer optimized the device, appealing to a micrometric manual screw.
Over time other scientists incorporated improvements in these utensils until the current form was reached. What the micrometer does is convert minute distances into larger rotations that can be read on a given scale . Thanks to the micrometric screw threaded inside, great precision is achieved.
Types of micrometers
There are several criteria that we can use to classify micrometers. For example, if we look at the technology used when manufacturing them, we have the:
* mechanical : they are based solely on mechanical elements. It should be noted that they are the oldest;
* Electronic : electronic elements and, in general, digital technology are used in its manufacture .

According to the unit of measurement, the micrometer can belong to:
* decimal system : the unit of length used is the millimeter;
* English system : use an inch divider.
According to the standardization, the micrometer can be:
* standard : its applications are general;
* special : they are manufactured for specific measurement jobs, either in the manufacture or in the verification of certain parts. For this reason, their appreciation and their breadth of measures are particular.

Example of a mechanical micrometer
As a unit of length
Micrometer, on the other hand, is synonymous with micron or micron . This is a unit of symbol length μ equal to one millionth of a meter : 0.001 mm.
Use of this unit is convenient for referring to very small items. The diameter of the hair of the human being , for example, is measured in microns: each hair has a diameter of about 70 μ .
This unit of measure is the smallest in the field of mechanical manufacturing. It is used to express the size variations that are allowed in the part design process, a concept called dimension tolerance .
Etymology of the term
Con respecto a su etimología, esta acepción del término se originó en el griego, en el género gramatical neutro de micrós, un adjetivo que se puede traducir como «pequeño».
Si usamos el sinónimo micrón, el plural correspondiente es micrones. Para micra, en cambio, debemos usar micras; cabe mencionar que en griego no cambia, sino que se mantiene «micra». Por este motivo, si habláramos con total rigor lingüístico deberíamos usar este término sin alteración para el plural de micrómetro, a menos que digamos micrómetros.

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