What is metallic bond?

What Does metallic bond Mean

A link is a connection, a link or a union between two elements. Metallic , on the other hand, is something related to a metal (a chemical element that has a characteristic shine and that allows electricity and heat to be conducted).

In the field of chemistry , the bond between two atoms that are part of a chemical compound is called a bond. The specific case of the metallic bond refers to the union of this type that occurs in a metal.
Before moving on, it should be remembered that an atom is a particle that has a nucleus with electrons around it. Atoms cannot be divided by chemical mechanisms.

A metal bond , in this framework, allows the atoms of a metal compound to stick together, clumping closely together. This closeness makes both nuclei and electron clouds interact and very compact structures are generated .
In this kind of structure, each atom of the metal is surrounded by another dozen atoms. The electron valence meanwhile leave their orbitals and move freely throughout the compound. This particularity generates the already mentioned thermal and electrical properties of metals.
The mobility of the valence electrons in the metallic bond not only confers good electrical and thermal conductivity: it also gives the metal malleability and ductility, since the cations are mobilized without generating a break.
To explain the characteristics of metals, scientists Paul Karl Ludwig Drude and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz proposed the model of the sea ​​of ​​electrons at the end of the 19th century . This indicates that metal atoms have a reduced number of electrons in their last shell and easily lose valence electrons, transforming into positive ions that form a network . This process gives rise to a sea or a cloud of electrons that moves through the aforementioned network.
This is also known as the theory of electronic gas , since as the outer electrons are attached to the atoms in a light way, they form a kind of gas , which is called electronic gas , sea ​​of ​​electrons or electronic cloud , which in fact is the metallic bond itself.
In order to explain the characteristics of the metallic bond, the first step was to take as a reference a model in which the valence electrons could move freely within the crystal lattice. In this way, it must be considered that the metallic lattice is formed by a series of valence electrons and positive ions (the nuclei covered with electrons); this runs counter to the idea that lattices consisted of neutral atoms.

In other words, metallic elements are made up of regularly distributed metallic cations that are held together thanks to the binding action of the electronic gas in which they are immersed.
Thanks to this model, the thermal and electrical conductivity of metals can be explained efficiently and with a reduced level of complexity. Given the obvious mobility of electrons in a metallic bond, they can move towards the positive electrode from the negative one if we subject the metal to a difference in electrical potential .
Another peculiarity of mobile electrons is that they can conduct heat by carrying kinetic energy (the energy generated by its movement) through the crystal . Metals are malleable and ductile because the delocalized bond does not have a single orientation but can extend in any direction, unlike solids in covalent lattices. When the glass undergoes a deformation, the metallic bonds adapt and the resulting energy is not very different from the original one.

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