What is Marxism?

What Does Marxism Mean

The Marxism is a doctrine that is rooted in the theories developed by the famous Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . Both intellectuals of German origin reinterpreted the dialectical idealism popularized by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as dialectical materialism and proposed the creation of a society without class distinction . Political organizations created along the lines of this doctrine are described as Marxist .

It should be noted that in addition to Hegel , other thinkers have contributed to the expansion of Marxism, such as the cases of Adam Smith , David Ricardo , Ludwig Feuerbach and the different exponents of French utopian socialism of the 19th century.
The most important work of Marxism is "Capital" ( "Das Kapital" , in German). Marx published only the first volume while alive, which appeared in 1867 . The three remaining books appeared between 1885 and 1894 , being edited by Engels from the manuscripts of Marx .
Marx's fundamental proposal, the one he postulates in " Capital ", is to achieve a society without class distinctions where both the production process, the productive forces and the relations that arise from production become a social good . In this it differs from capitalism where work is social but the appropriation of it is private, where work is bought for money.
Marx's analysis of societies was based on the class division proposed by capitalism, which did not coincide at all with the notion that the intellectual had of what a just society was. On the one hand, there was the working class, which it also calls the proletariat , who sell their labor and receive money in return, but who do not have the means for production, the main responsible for granting wealth to a society (they build, manufacture , produce services, etc.) in turn, this class is divided into the ordinary proletariat (those who easily find work and receive a fairly reasonable payment for their services) and the lumpenproletariat.(those who live in absolute poverty and do not get stable jobs: immigrants, prostitutes, beggars, etc). The other class is the bourgeoisie to which belong those who have the means of production and buy the services of the proletariat for their exploitation. This class can be divided into a very rich bourgeoisie and a petty bourgeoisie (the latter are those who employ labor but must also work: merchants, small owners, peasants with little land, etc).

The idea of ​​Marxism is to expropriate the means of production of the bourgeoisie and leave them in the hands of the proletariat so that the working classes are the only ones who benefit from the fruit of their labor. However, this analysis does not include mechanisms to end the class division. The anarchism emerged years later, clung to the idea of stopping them, and their fundamental thinkers Mikhail Bakunin and Piotr Kropotkinthey branded Marxism incoherent in proposing a revolution leaving the existence of a state. They claimed that a true revolution must end not only economic social divisions, but also political hierarchies. However, history ended up leaving anarchism as an even more distant utopia than Marxism itself.
In the field of religions, Marxism has always been totally contrary to them. There is a phrase that says that religion is the opium of the peoples that, although it is not known whether it was really Marx, Nietzsche or Mao Tse Tung who pronounced it first, can clearly define the opinion that Marxists and later communists have on religious beliefs. It should be noted that for Marxism the essence of every human being is found in the set of their relationships with the other individuals in the group. Relationships that are spiritual and material and where individual and collective consciousness occupy one of the fundamental places.
After the death of Marx, which occurred in 1883, several divisions arose within the party, one of the main ones was that of the Social Democrats (they considered that socialism could develop in a capitalist and multi-party society) and the Communists (they appealed to revolution as motor for an absolutely structural change), which were fundamental for the development of the political events that were seen at the beginning of the 20th century. These parties were inspired by Marxism to launch their revolutions . Among the most important of the century were the Bolshevik revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky , which took place inOctober 1917 in Russia was the first large-scale attempt to install a workers' state with socialist characteristics. In this way, Soviet Marxism ended up transforming into Stalinism , a movement led by Joseph Stalin and criticized by many Marxists for considering that its spirit is dictatorial and bureaucratic.
After World War II , and thanks to Soviet support, the Communist Party managed to come to power in the People's Republic of China , Vietnam , East Germany , Poland , Albania and Romania , among other countries.
De los intelectuales marxistas más sobresalientes del siglo XX se pueden citar a Georg Lukács, Louis Althusser y Antonio Gramsci.
En la actualidad todavía existen muchos movimientos nacidos del marxismo, pero la mayoría de ellos, sobre todo los que descienden de la socialdemocracia, se han alejado rotundamente de las ideas de Karl Marx, a decir verdad los revolucionarios también ya que se basan en políticas de extorsión e imposición de nuevos regímenes sociales, rotundos e inamovibles.
No se ha conocido un Estado marxista que respete las ideas planteadas por Marx. En su libro «Hambre y seda», Herta Müller, hace un análisis del régimen de Nicolae Ceauşescu donde afirma que aquella utopía que muchos continúan buscando, el marxismo como forma política que dirija el destino de todos los pueblos no existe y que en su lugar sí han existido numerosos casos de gobiernos marxistas que han hostigado pueblos y asesinado a mansalva a familias enteras. Para ella las ideas políticas no pueden medirse únicamente desde la teoría, pues es en la práctica donde se las reconoce y puede saberse si son imprescindibles o no. Posiblemente sólo quienes hayan vivido bajo un régimen de la envergadura salvaje de Nicolae Ceauşescu pueden comprender sus palabras.

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