What is industrial Revolution?

What Does industrial Revolution Mean

During the second part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century , a period took place that went down in history with the name of the industrial revolution . It was a time of great transformations in the technological, economic, social and cultural fields, which had its epicenter in England .

With the industrial revolution, industry and manufacturing activities replaced manual labor. This led to the mechanization of processes multiple production and the elimination of many jobs work , since these tasks became made by machines.

The industrial revolution was made up of two well differentiated stages: the first occurred between the years 1750 and 1840, and the second, between 1880 and 1914. Both can be analyzed through specific changes that took place in societies. In principle, there was a demographic transformation , with the transfer of the rural population to the cities and international migration. Then a great economic change took place , with mass production and the emergence of large companies , which helped to strengthen capitalism .
First industrial revolution
The first stage of this change originated in the United Kingdom; However, it was a process that unleashed changes in all countries and was based on economic liberalism . The fundamental reason why it began in this country, possibly is that it was an open society prepared for changes, and that it had large iron deposits, thanks to which it was possible to develop the necessary machinery to start the industry.
The first step of the industrial revolution was the mechanization of textile activities and industrialization in iron production. The emergence of the railroad and the creation of steam engines were other decisive changes, since they facilitated the transport of goods and increased production capacity.
Second industrial revolution
The second stage was a consequence of the first and had as protagonists countries such as France, Belgium, Russia, Germany and the United States. It was characterized by further laying the economic foundations that would govern the course of societies from the 19th century onwards.
This period consolidated capitalism as the dominant ideology of commercial relations in the world and brought with it important technological advances that would be reflected in more sophisticated machinery for production, improvements in means of transport and, fundamentally, an increase in the comforts of citizens in their daily unfolding.

It is important to highlight that in both periods social transformations took place such as the birth of the proletariat , that is, industrial workers, and the degradation of the environment due to the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources.
Parallel to the appearance of the proletariat, another social group was formed, identified with the name of the industrial bourgeoisie , which encompassed the big businessmen and those who were left with the power and the economic benefits derived from this historical process.
Three strong points of the industrial revolution can be mentioned:
* The agricultural revolution : thanks to the investment that certain owners made in modern techniques of working the soil and in the modernization of farming systems, which brought a progressive increase in agricultural production. It should be noted that in this period the use of fertilizers in agriculture was created and implemented;
* Development of commercial capital : rules were established to systematize work, the relationship between employers and workers became strictly labor and had the sole objective of obtaining benefits for both parties. The incorporation of machinery at work allowed not only to improve working conditions but also to improve communication and transportation in cities;
* Cambios demográfico-sociales: dados los cambios provocados por los nuevos medios de transporte y comunicación, muchas personas se concentraron en la ciudad para trabajar en las fábricas; el resto se enfocó en las zonas agrícolas que habían implementado los cambios de los que ya hablamos. A su vez, gracias a las mejoras en la producción agrícola y a la abundancia de alimentos, mejoró mucho la salud de los ciudadanos, permitiendo de este modo el crecimiento demográfico.

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