What is hyperthyroidism?

What Does hyperthyroidism Mean

The hyperthyroidism is characterized by a disorder increase the function of the thyroid , an endocrine gland that is responsible for the regulation of metabolism and sensitivity of the organism to various hormones. When the thyroid works excessively, hyperthyroidism occurs, responsible for various health problems.

The subacute thyroiditis , the Multinodular goiter toxic , the toxic thyroid adenoma , the Graves' disease and certain drugs can cause hyperthyroidism. The doctor must determine the etiology of the disorder by studying the symptoms and signs, thus being able to reach a diagnosis and thus determine the best treatment for the patient.

The excessive production of thyroid hormones leads to a generalized increase in metabolism , with increased energy expenditure and oxygen consumption. This metabolic imbalance can cause weight loss, hair loss, arrhythmia , muscle weakness, nervousness, tremors, anxiety and insomnia, for example.
A key test for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is the performance of a blood test to measure the level of thyroxine or T4 , a thyroid hormone. When this hormone appears in an excessive amount, it reveals the existence of hyperthyroidism.
With hyperthyroidism already diagnosed, treatment may include the provision of antithyroid drugs (which block the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones) or radioactive iodine and the removal of part or all of the thyroid through surgery .
In this framework, we talk about three different types of treatments: conservative , surgical and radioactive iodine , which are detailed below. The first consists of the use of drugs called antithyroid drugs , mentioned in the previous paragraph, which are administered orally and can offer improvements in a maximum period of two weeks, although in some cases the symptoms are reversed in just seven days. In this group of drugs that inhibit hormone formation are carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil.
If the table includes disease of Graves' , then it is possible to test a more extensive treatment, which lasts between one and two years using antithyroid drugs exclusively or in combination with thyroxine , through which can be avoided hypothyroidism . Throughout the treatment, the patient must attend a check-up every three or four months, in which it is necessary to check that side effects of the drugs do not occur, such as skin reactions and a decrease in white blood cells.

With regard to surgical treatment , it is intended for cases that do not remit definitively and those that arise as a consequence of nodular goiters (increase in the size of the nodules). When the nodules grow too large, it causes compression symptoms or impairs vision, typical of Graves-Basedow disease. This procedure focuses on removing a fraction of the thyroid so that the gland is smaller and produces fewer hormones.
If the goiter is not considerable or the risk of surgery is too high, then it is recommended to resort to the administration of radioactive iodine orally, whose effects can begin to be appreciated from the first month of treatment. It is important to note that this alternative often causes hypothyroidism and impairs vision even more than surgery . To treat hypothyroidism, on the other hand, thyroxine tablets should be prescribed, which are taken orally.
It should be noted that hyperthyroidism can also affect other species . It is common, to cite one case, among elderly domestic cats, suffering from rapid heartbeat, stomach problems and sudden weight loss.

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