What is hydrocarbons?

What Does hydrocarbons Mean

A hydrocarbon is the organic type compound that arises when hydrogen atoms are combined with other carbon atoms . According to experts in the field, in this compound the molecular form is based on atoms of carbon bonded to hydrogen atoms. These chains of carbon atoms can be open or closed and linear or branched .

When a hydrocarbon is extracted in a liquid state from a geological formation, it is called oil . In contrast, the hydrocarbon that is naturally in the gaseous state is called natural gas .

The exploitation of oil and natural gas represents a very important industry for the economy since they allow obtaining fossil fuels and producing lubricants, plastics and other products.
It is also important to note that hydrocarbons can generate serious poisoning, with severe breathing disorders . When a person is poisoned by a hydrocarbon, they are intubed and mechanically ventilated.
Since hydrocarbons are included in the group of organic solvents (liquids that can give off vapor), it is very common for intoxications to occur by inhalation, but they can also take place through ingestion or contact with the skin. In everyday life, many household consumer products represent potential sources of toxicity; some examples are gas cylinders, kerosene, and aniline.
Classification
It should be noted that it is possible to classify hydrocarbons as aliphatic or aromatic . The aliphatic hydrocarbons , for its part, can be divided into alkanes , alkenes and alkynes according to the kinds of bonds linking carbon atoms.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons, according to theory , are those that lack an aromatic ring. They can be saturated or unsaturated . The saturated ones are the alkanes (a group in which all carbons have two pairs of single bonds), while the unsaturated ones (also known as unsaturated ) are the alkenes (which, at least, have one double bond) and the alkynes (with triple bonds).
The aromatic hydrocarbons , meanwhile, are compounds having at least one cyclic structure and meet what is known as the Huckel rule .

Hückel's rule
With Hückel's rule it is possible to study the relationship that takes place between aromaticity and the amount of electrons that are passed from one atom to another when the sp2 orbitals of a molecule of a cyclic and flat organic type that alternate single and double bonds overlap. . When the number of these electrons is 4 n + 2 the molecule is said to be aromatic, while for 4 n , antiaromatic. An aromatic compound has a very different stability to that of an antiaromatic or a non-aromatic one, so this rule is of vital use to anticipate this property.
With respect to aromatics, benzene is the most common type of hydrocarbon. It is a molecule in which it is very easy to observe its energy level, according to the presence or absence of nodes. Through Hückel's rule, it is possible to take n number of orbitals of atoms and relate them, starting from the principle that establishes that the result of said analysis is equivalent to the same number of orbitals but with different energy states.
After applying this relationship, in cases where there are 4 n electrons, they reach a relatively higher energy level, while when 4 n + 2 are found , a formula previously assigned to aromatic molecules, the electrons pass to a considerably lower state and achieve greater stability.

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