What is Huns?

What Does Huns Mean

The Huns were the members of a Mongoloid people who, in the 5th century , dominated the region between the Danube and Volga rivers . Although their origin is not clear, it is believed that they arose in the Asian continent and that they spoke some Altaic language.

The Huns were nomads and settled in huts. With regard to their food production activities, they were mainly engaged in hunting and livestock. Through looting and commercial activity they managed to obtain what they did not produce.
The role of the king or leader represented the highest authority of the Hun people. The most famous was precisely the last great leader: Attila , who ruled between 434 and 453 and came to lead the largest empire in Europe in his time.

Under Attila , the Huns besieged Constantinople , invaded the Balkans, and came close to capturing Rome . The king of the Huns is usually described by historians as a bloodthirsty, cruel and rapacious man, although some versions allude to his nobility. When Attila passed away in 453 , the Huns ended up splitting up and eventually ceased to exist as a unit .
For the formation of the Hungarian empire of the fifth century , there was first an advance through Central Asia , from the present region of Turkmenistan towards India , progressing through the northwest. In the year 370 , about the Huns they began to move towards the European territory, destabilizing the barbarian peoples of Central Europe and the East . With the access of Attila to power , the union of the various Hun settlements was achieved in a great empire that came to plunder the dominions of the Romans.
At the death of Attila , Elak , his eldest son , assumed command , who was confronted by his brothers Ernak and Dengizik . Against this background, rebellions began among the conquered tribes. In 469 , with the death of Dengizik ( Elak's successor ), the Hungarian empire ceased to exist.
Returning to the theme of its origin , it is important to note that it is the focus of a long debate. Throughout antiquity, the theologian Eusebius Hieronymus , whom we also know by the name of Jerome , linked the Huns with the ancient Scythians, a group of peoples also nomads. This went hand in hand with the identification of the Huns with demons and witches, or with descendants of such diabolical creatures.

Today, the origin of this town continues to give rise to controversy among historians. Since the 18th century, thanks to the work of the French orientalist Joseph de Guignes , the Huns who populated the European continent throughout the 4th century have been associated with the Xiongnu people, who appear in the records of Chinese history of the dynasty. Han and are believed to have formed a highly relevant political entity in the steppe region of present-day Mongolia.
Since the 1950s, some authors began to be skeptical of such an approach, relying especially on the observation of sources from paleoanthropology and archeology. For Otto Maenchen-Helfen , among other authors, the supposed relationship between the Huns and the Xiongnu does not have the necessary support, mainly because the evidence indicates that they existed at different times in history .
If there really was a connection between the two, experts point out that it is probably simply a question of cultural affinity and not ethnic continuity. Maenchen-Helfen examined the findings from many tombs from the two peoples and concluded that they did not correspond at all. One of the main points that serves to draw a clear difference is the deformation of the skull practiced by the Huns, never noticed in the Xiongnu remains.

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