What is hemolysis?

What Does hemolysis Mean

It is called hemolysis to the process that occurs when the red blood cells are disintegrated and hemoglobin containing it is released into the blood plasma . The term can also be accentuated in the first I ( hemolysis ).

To understand what hemolysis is, therefore, it is important to define other concepts first. First of all, you have to know that red blood cells , also called red blood cells or erythrocytes , are blood cells . Among its components is hemoglobin , a protein that is responsible for carrying oxygen from the organs of the respiratory system to the various tissues of the body.

Red blood cells have no nucleus or organelles: therefore, as they wear out, they are unable to repair themselves. At a certain point, the red blood cells are destroyed and their hemoglobin is released into the plasma, which is the liquid part of the blood. This process of destruction of the erythrocyte and subsequent release of its hemoglobin into the bloodstream is called hemolysis.
It is important to mention that not all red blood cells are destroyed by releasing hemoglobin. Those who go through the process usually do so in the spleen, bone marrow or liver, about 120 days after its appearance.
There are several pathological causes that can accelerate or increase hemolysis. These include mechanical lesions, enzymatic or osmotic disorders, infections such as malaria, congenital disorders affecting red blood cells (in the context of an infection or abnormal hemoglobin state), antigen-antibody binding (as a result of a hemolytic disease in a newborn baby or from a blood transfusion) and various diseases .
On the other hand, in the context of a blood test, handling of samples can cause hemolysis if certain conditions are met, such as the following:
* sucking the sample too fast;

* use containers, syringes and needles that are damp;

* not emptying the syringe properly;

* using the wrong proportion of anticoagulant (a substance that works to inhibit or interfere with blood clotting).
To the above list we can add the cases of snake bites, rattlesnakes and spiders. It is important to note that the most serious episodes of hemolysis occur in people who have a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and are exposed to substances, drugs or situations that promote the destruction of erythrocytes. In general, these phenomena last a short time and recovery begins almost immediately, as the body does not stop producing red blood cells; however, sometimes a case of kidney failure or even death can occur, if the event is extremely severe.

Hemolysis causes interference with various measurements , such as LDH (lactate dehydrogenase, a catalytic enzyme present in various tissues of our body), potassium, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme present in various tissues, mainly in the liver, muscles and heart), GPT (alanine aminotransferase or glutamic pyruvic transaminase, an enzyme found especially in the liver), creatinine, bilirubins and acid phosphatase (an enzyme belonging to the group of esterases responsible for eliminating phosphate groups of certain substrates), among others.
One of the situations that can trigger an episode of hemolysis is drowning in fresh water : when the person can no longer hold their breath, the water found in the pulmonary alveoli reaches the bloodstream and then the disintegration of the lungs takes place. erythrocytes.
The hemolytic anemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome are two of the conditions that affect hemolysis and cause various disorders in the health of the person.

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