What is hemoglobin?

What Does hemoglobin Mean

It is called hemoglobin to the protein present in the bloodstream which allows the oxygen to be taken from the organs of the respiratory system to all regions and tissues. It is possible to identify hemoglobin as a heteroprotein since, according to experts, it is a conjugated protein (where it is possible to see a protein part baptized as globin with a non-protein part known as the prosthetic group ).

It should be noted that hemoglobin is a reddish pigment that, when in contact with oxygen, turns scarlet red (the typical color of the blood in the arteries). By losing oxygen, on the other hand, hemoglobin turns dark red, which is the color that characterizes the blood in the veins.

Two pairs of polypeptide chains make up hemoglobin and each of them is attached to a heme group . The iron atoms in these sets allow them to bind, in an easy way to reverse, to an O2 molecule. Being bound with oxygen , hemoglobin is called oxygenated hemoglobin or oxyhemoglobin . On the other hand, if you lose oxygen, you speak of reduced hemoglobin .
It is possible to differentiate between different types of hemoglobin. The hemoglobin of type A , also known as normal hemoglobin or adult, is composed of a pair of alpha globins and two beta globins. Hemoglobin A represents about 97% of hemoglobin in an adult person . The A2 hemoglobin (alpha globin 2 and the same amount of delta globin), meanwhile, is less than 2.5% of the hemoglobin after birth.
Various pathologies also generate different types of hemoglobin or alterations in normal amounts. The hemoglobin S is present in some types of anemia, while glycated hemoglobin increases with diabetes.
To establish the amount of hemoglobin present in a person's blood and thus be able to detect if they suffer from any of the possible forms of anemia , the relevant analysis is carried out, which can be included in a routine extraction. Although no preparation is necessary prior to the exam , it is essential to tell the professional on duty if a transfusion has been received in the previous three months or if nicotine has been consumed minutes before, since any of these situations can alter the hemoglobin level.
One of the most common causes of a low level of hemoglobin in the blood is a poor diet , not very nutritious; However, it can also be caused by not consuming enough iron, the presence of parasites in the intestines, bleeding caused by stomach ulcers or excessive menstruation, among other factors. A reason that exceeds the will of a person is surgery , since in this type of intervention a lot of blood is lost. Some of the symptoms present in these cases are weakness and lack of energy to perform common and undemanding tasks, tachycardia and even heart failure.

The Bohr effect is known as the phenomenon by which pulmonary hemoglobin becomes oxygenated, with the consequent expulsion of oxygen present in the tissues, due to pCO2 and pH. The muscles that other types of tissue rapidly metabolized when they contract produce significant volumes of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. Hemoglobin has adapted to send oxygen where it is most needed, and has learned to deal with accumulations of the two compounds just mentioned. When the amount of pH decreases, hemoglobin has a lower attraction to oxygen, so if it encounters an area where this decrease is taking place, it reacts by releasing it.

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