What is gnoseology?

What Does gnoseology Mean

With etymological origin in the Greek language, the notion of epistemology is used in the field of philosophy to refer to the epistemology or theory of knowledge . Gnoseology, in fact, derives from gnôsis (which translates as "knowledge" ).

What gnoseology does, therefore, is to analyze the origin, characteristics and limitations of knowledge (knowledge, understanding). This philosophical branch does not focus on specific knowledge, but is oriented to the nature of knowledge in its broadest sense.
For gnoseology, there are two great ways of acquiring knowledge: through reason or through the senses . The reason allows to produce information and then infer a conclusion, while the senses provide information obtained by sensory perception (hearing, vision, etc.). If a person buys a box of six alfajores and eats five, he can appeal to reason to know, without having to reopen the box, that he has only one alfajor left. On the other hand, an individual may know that a clothing store is closed upon arriving at the location and observe that the blinds are down.

These two ways of acquiring knowledge evidences the positions of rationalism (doctrine that affirms that knowledge comes from rational intuition or the deductions that derive from said intuition) and empiricism (it maintains that knowledge always comes from sensory experiences), that They are among the main reasons for reflection in gnoseology.
It is important to establish a series of important facts around the study of knowledge throughout history, such as the following:

-That aforementioned study can indicate that it was put into operation in Ancient Greece and thanks to figures such as Theaetetus or Aristotle.

-In the Middle Ages, both Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas were relevant people in said disciplines.

-It was in the Renaissance when gnoseology experienced a great development and impulse.

-In the centuries after the Renaissance, gnoseology acquired relevance and took very significant steps thanks to figures such as John Locke, Francis Bacon, David Hume, René Descartes or Leibniz, among others.

-Immanuel Kant, Sartre or Heidegger are other people who played a relevant role in the development of gnoseology during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The realism , the skepticism , the relativism , the constructivism and dialectical materialism are other doctrines that analyze the theories of knowledge from various angles, contributing to the development of epistemology.
In the same way, we cannot ignore the fact that there is what is known as legal gnoseology. Under this name we can establish that there is the branch of philosophy whose objective of study is what is the knowledge of Law. Hence, it is in charge of analyzing and investigating issues and aspects such as the legal system that exists in a country, the sources of Law that exist ...

It is important to establish that, on occasions, it is common to confuse what gnoseology is with epistemology. This is because both are theories of knowledge. However, the main difference between them is that the first is related, above all, with what is scientific knowledge and the second is not.

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