What is geothermal energy?

What Does geothermal energy Mean

The energy can be understood as a natural resource that, with certain associated components can be used industrially. The concept also refers to the ability to set or transform something.

Geothermal , on the other hand, is a term that comes from the Greek language and is made up of two words: geo ( “Earth” ) and thermos ( “heat” ), that is, “heat from the Earth” .
The notion of geothermal energy , therefore, is linked to the energy obtained from the use of heat from the interior of the Earth . This heat can be generated by different factors.

Geothermal energy can make use of shallow hot springs that emanate steam. Another source of geothermal energy is magma (a mixture of molten rock and gases), although there are not enough technological resources for its industrial exploitation .
Typically, geothermal power plants work with a minimum of two wells: the hot water is obtained from one, while the other is used to reinject the already cooled flow obtained into the aquifer. This system allows to maintain the water flow of the reservoir.
It should be noted that geothermal reservoirs can be depleted and / or cool, which means that this type of energy is not fully renewable.
Although geothermal energy is one of the types of renewable energy less known by people outside the scientific field, it is very likely that we have all seen the effects of this natural source of heat in action more than once in our lives; Some of the examples of its manifestation are volcanic eruptions, geysers, fumaroles (cracks in the earth that allow the escape of water vapors and sulfurous gases that come from some volcanic conduit) and hot springs (known especially for relaxation produced when they come into contact with the body).
In Europe, the first country to take advantage of it was Sweden, following the oil crisis of 1979; other parts of the world where this energy has been widely exploited for a long time are Japan, North America, France, the Netherlands and Finland.
It is possible to distinguish between very low temperature geothermal energy (used for agriculture or in the residential environment), low temperature geothermal energy (with fluids between 50º and 70º), medium temperature geothermal energy (between 70º and 150º ) and high temperature geothermal energy (between 150º and 400º).

Geothermal energy is very efficient and clean, and it has many applications. High-temperature resources are especially useful for producing electricity . If the temperature is not enough for this purpose, it is used to air-condition (both heat and cool) the residential, service or industrial sector, by means of a geothermal heat pump. In the case of very low temperatures, finally, they are used both for the atmosphere and for the provision of hot water.
It is worth mentioning that geothermal energy with very low temperatures is found very close to the earth's surface; In some countries it is enough to descend 10 meters to find 17 degrees Celsius in any season of the year, given the thermal inertia of the soil .
One of the devices used for the collection of geothermal energy is a series of panels buried under the ground, through which a solution containing water with glycol is circulated, which allows heat to be transferred or extracted from the earth to meet the needs heating or cooling. Some cities have very ambitious plans to take advantage of this type of renewable energy; Madrid, for example, intends to supply the air conditioning of its entire metro network with it.

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