# What is fallacy?

## What Does fallacy Mean

From the Latin fallacia , a fallacy is a lie or deception with which it is intended to harm a person without them realizing it. A person who discovers that he has been the victim of a fallacy may express, for example: "The fallacy of his job made me live deceived for many years" , "Pablo is always with his fallacies, trying to scam people . A person uses a fallacy to obtain something that he knows he could not achieve otherwise than through the appeal to falsehood , generally his intention is not precisely to harm, but to obtain a benefitBut he is not concerned with hurting others to get what he wants.

In logic the concept is also used to refer to an argument that tries to defend something that is false. We will explain it better below.
According to the dictionary definition, logic is the science of thought , which allows us to analyze reasoning and determine whether or not it is correct. In any case, within this science there are various branches: fuzzy and constructive logic, and within each one different currents.
The Boolean logic is the best known and seems to be the only one considered by the common people, although it is important to note that it is not the only existing. Within this, those statements that can be true or false are defined as a proposition ; it is the essence of reasoning . It is important to note that the proposition does not refer to the way in which the sentence is conjugated but to its meaning, which does not vary even if the preposition is reformulated.
For example:

"There is an even prime number greater than two" is the same preposition as "An even prime number that is greater than two exists", although the words are ordered differently. In any case, it is important that when reformulating a proposition its meaning is not changed, that is why it is so important to use the language correctly. For this reformulation, formal linguistics is usually used, which allows us to analyze sentences and rewrite them without changing their essential meaning .
Regarding fallacies, although the construction of deductive reasoning may seem like a simple task, nevertheless many times we find very common errors, which lead us to conclude that a reasoning is not precise at all . This technical defect in the way of posing a reasoning is known as a fallacy .
Those arguments that contain fallacies are known as fallacious and have the particularity that generally at first glance they seem valid and even convincing and only through an exhaustive analysis can we realize their "deception".

Ultimately, a fallacy is a sophism , an apparent refutation that is used to defend something false, exposing false premises as true. It is a reasoning that appears to be logical, but whose result is independent of the veracity of the premises.
The logical fallacy , therefore, supposes an incorrect application of a valid logical principle. It can also be formed by the application of a non-existent principle.
An example of a fallacy is the following:

1. Emeralds are green

2. This ring is green.

3. Therefore, the ring is made of emeralds.
Both of the aforementioned premises may be true, however the conclusion is not necessarily true. The ring can be made of emeralds or other green material. In the first case, the conclusion would be true, but, in the second, we would be facing a false conclusion.
Another example of fallacy, known as ad hominem , occurs when the person who makes a statement is disqualified to, in this way, also disqualify their sayings:
1. Martín claims that he saw Pedro steal money.

2. Martín tends to lie.

3. Therefore, Peter did not steal the money.

In these cases, the fallacy does not address the validity of the claim, but rather refutes the person making the claim.

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