What is Factual Science?

What Does Factual science Mean

The factual sciences or factual, or even empirical sciences are those whose purpose is to get a (mental or artificial) reproduction of the phenomena of nature to be studied, in order to understand the forces and mechanisms involved in them.



Thus, it is about the sciences that deal with verifiable and experienceable reality , as its name indicates: “factual” comes from the Latin term factum , which translates “facts”; and "empirical" from the Greek empiria that translates experience. In this they clearly differ from the formal sciences , whose object of study is the systems of logical and mental representation of reality , such as mathematics or philosophy , interested in abstract and mental objects.

The factual sciences, however, turn to logic and formal processes as a tool to support their studies , whose principle of non-contradiction of the exposed terms and whose methodological steps for experimentation constitute the so-called Scientific Method .

Thus, factual or empirical sciences resort to experimentation as a way of approaching the universal laws of reality, but their results are always, in the best of cases, transitory: a new discovery may question or vary them. the way in which the results obtained were interpreted.

It can help you: Exact Sciences

Types of factual science

There are two large groups of factual sciences:

  • The natural sciences . The natural sciences are those that are interested in understanding the working dynamics of natural reality, both of living beings and inanimate matter, and they pursue universal answers about the composition of life and nature. The biology is a good example.
  • The social sciences . The social sciences, on the other hand, are interested from a scientific perspective in human phenomena, such as the constitution of the human mind, the history of civilizations or the rules of the economy .

Examples of factual science

Biology is the study of life and known living things.

Some examples of factual or empirical sciences are as follows:

  • Biology . The study of life and known living beings.
  • Chemistry . The study of the formation of matter and the reactions that occur between substances .
  • Physical . The study of the forces that interact in the universe with matter and energy .
  • Economics or Economics . The study of the administration of resources in societies and the formation and flow of wealth.
  • Political science or Politology . The study of the community management and government systems of the different human societies in their different eras and their mechanisms of domination and change.
  • Psychology . The study of the formation, functioning and dynamics of the human mind.
  • Sociology . The study of human societies and their historical-social contexts, understood as identifiable systems.
  • Sexology. The study of sex and human sexual relations, not only from an anatomical and biological point of view, but also from a cultural and social point of view.
  • Legal Sciences or Law . The study of justice , that is, of the mechanisms and ways in which human societies judge themselves and shape their ethical and legal codes.
  • History . Although for many it is more of a humanity, there are many academics who defend the belonging to the social sciences of the study of the dynamics of change of humanity from the invention of writing to the present day.
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