What is dialectics?

What Does dialectics Mean

Dialectics is called the art of debating, refuting and arguing . The concept, which comes from the Latin dialectĭcus although its etymological origin is found in the Greek language, also refers to the reasoning that is developed starting from principles .

It is possible to find the idea of ​​dialectics in different philosophical currents and traditions. For the German Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), dialectics is a process where opposites ( thesis and antithesis ) confront and resolve their dichotomy in a superior way ( synthesis ).
The Hegelian dialectic consists of the development and foundation of the thesis , which generates the irruption of contrary or opposite aspects: the antithesis . To reconcile these issues that appear to be contradictory, we move towards a new conception, which is synthesis .

In this framework, the thesis is usually a philosophical, social or historical idea , which once it is developed in depth gives rise to the appearance of these aspects that do not correspond directly. It is important to note that Hegel never used the technical words thesis , antithesis, and thesis , but rather these were coined by HM Chalybäus and popularized by the many scholars who specialized in his work.
If we focus on the Hegelian dialectic, we must accept that various currents or reflective ideas go through a stage of apparent contradiction, and this feature is vital to the work that Hegel did. From a metaphorical point of view, we could affirm that identity is nothing more than the determination of the simple, static and immediate; in the same way, contradiction is the starting point of vitality and movement. In other words, only something can move that contains a contradiction.
Through ordinary imagination it is possible to detect identity, different features and contradiction, although not the transition process that occurs between each point, and it is this transformation that is the most important part.
The materialist dialectic , also known as dialectical materialism , is the current that arose with the proposals of Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) that considers that the substrate of thoughts and of all reality is matter . In this way, matter is independent of consciousness. These theorists considered that the application of the Hegelian dialectic was necessary for the interpretation of the world. Marx , in this framework, understood that history was given by the struggle of social classes with opposing material interests, from whose confrontation the historical changes emanated.

Unlike mechanistic materialism , which holds that the world is made up of things and, ultimately, material particles that inertly combine with each other, materialist dialectics is based on the idea that all material phenomena are a process. The followers of this current believe that Hegel was wrong in maintaining that the changes that occur in natural processes are manifestations of the spirit, although he was correct in defining them as dialectical and global.
It is necessary to take Hegel's idea and invert it, and then put matter at the base as it develops dialectically. In nature , we can appreciate the following three fundamental laws:
* the step to quality from quantity;

* opposites or opposites mutually penetrate;

* Denial is denied.
According to Engels, if we deny natural contradictions we maintain a metaphysical position, since the movement itself is based on them, both in objective and subjective contradictions.
Plato (427-347 BC), finally, was another thinker who focused on dialectics. In his doctrine , dialectics is the procedure that makes it possible to access transcendental realities through the meaning of words.

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