What is desertion?

What Does desertion Mean

Desertion is a term linked to the verb to desert : to abandon, to leave, to move away.

At the educational level , the term is used to speak of those students who abandon their studies for different reasons; studies being understood as all education that is within the educational system imposed by the government that governs in that State (primary, secondary, university, etc). Those people who stop studying become school dropouts .
According to the approach with which it is desired to analyze school dropout, one or other reasons may be known. From psychology it is considered that it is mainly due to the intelligence of the person and what motivates him; the sociology pays attention to social factors, pressures received by the individual from his environment, according to ratings you have reached. And from pedagogy , emphasis is placed on how education is organized, the evaluation system and the integration of students.

One of the most frequent uses of the term is found in the military field , where desertion is the abandonment of duty . This means that a deserter can be a corporal, a colonel or any other member of the armed force. The exception occurs with recruits : when they abandon their tasks, they are not considered as deserters, but rather are framed in the category of fugitives (people who escape a measure of authority or a decision of the Justice).
According to military law, the deserter commits a crime that, in some countries and according to the context, can be punished by shooting .
One form of desertion is conscientious objection . In this case, the person refuses to comply with the military service that is compulsory by law, alleging religious or ethical reasons. Those who defend this desertion maintain that it is a right protected by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its article 18 .
School dropout
One of the most worrying educational problems is school dropout , since it is undoubtedly one of the most important causes of the lack of development in many societies.
It is a social phenomenon that is increasingly present in modern communities and although responsibility is attributed to political, economic and family issues; It should be clarified that in many cases, it is due to the great decline of the current educational system .
It is important to point out that the origin of school dropouts is in the absolutely recent past, from the implementation of compulsory and generalized education and it was getting worse with the massive idea of democratizing education.

As revealed by the studies carried out, the reasons why young people drop out can be many, from socio-economic and family problems to ideological reasons , such as not sharing the ideas of a systematic education, many of those who stated this reason, explained that They did not drop out of study, but rather from systematic education , continuing their studies in a self-taught way or resorting to different methods such as private education .
One of the factors that most influences school dropout is the lack of support and affection that young people receive in their family environment. According to studies, more than 50% of students who drop out of school find themselves in a very delicate emotional situation with respect to their relatives. If one takes into account that the family is the first school , no matter how hard they make an effort in the second to make the child learn, form looking forward to the future and strive to achieve their achievements, it will be in vain; because everything that the person receives in his house, will be what pushes him to become one or another person . School dropout is manifested as a consequence of the feeling of helplessness and helplessness.
Otras causas de la deserción escolar pueden ser: falta de interés en el niño, poca calidad en la educación, deficiente preparación de los profesores, elevado número de alumnos por aula y escasa dedicación a cada alumno, entre otros.
Además la implementación de las calificaciones para decidir qué alumno lleva mejor su educación que otro, es totalmente contradictorio a los fundamentos de la educación (enseñar y aprender). A través de ella puede conseguirse un orden desde lo administrativo, sin embargo puede provocar frustración, sentimientos autodestructivos, soberbia, conflictos entre aquellos alumnos a quien le va bien, en vez de incentivarlo a esforzarse más o a buscar afianzar sus conocimientos.
Una de las razones por las que se buscó la sistematización de la educación fue la igualdad social, creyendo que de este modo, los individuos de todos los sectores de una misma sociedad tendrían acceso a las mismas oportunidades; sin embargo, esta forma de encarar la educación no sólo no trajo igualdad, sino que trajo consecuencias como la deserción. Se le dio a la educación una responsabilidad que no era ya educar, sino igualar a todas las personas; cosa totalmente perjudicial, pues en una misma clase se reúnen amantes de las artes y matemáticos acérrimos y no hay forma de armar el programa sin bajar el nivel de uno de ellos para acercarlo al polo opuesto (a conceptos y asuntos que en verdad no le interesan y que se olvidará al terminar la escuela).
Cabe señalar que según el reductivismo pedagógico, la escuela debe manifestar y sostener la forma en que está compuesta la estructura social por esta razón, nunca podría contribuir a acortar las distancias existentes entre ricos y pobres, porque la escuela no puede ir contra el sistema, es uno más de los elementos que componen el aparato ideológico del Estado.
Por otro lado, una de las funciones fundamentales de la escuela es colaborar con los aprendizajes que están relacionados con la parte social y afectiva del individuo; sin embargo, la forma en la que se implementa el aprendizaje puede obrar contradictoriamente a este objetivo, ya que los alumnos que no superan las expectativas esperadas repiten y son alejados de su grupo de compañeros, lo que puede causar conflictos emocionales importantes, sobre todo porque en el nuevo curso recibirá el título de «repitente» lo que marcará una mayor diferencia con sus nuevos compañeros.
Para terminar y retomar la definición del término, diremos que la deserción consiste en dejar de cumplir con una obligación o en alejarse de ciertos ideales o causas.
Algunos ejemplos de frases donde aparece el término: «Quiero recordarle, Teniente McNein, que la deserción es castigada con la pena capital», «La deserción de doscientos soldados afectó la capacidad de fuego del país», «Si esto sigue así, la deserción será una opción elegida por muchos», «Resulta evidente que el camarada Koprivski ha optado por la deserción en la lucha revolucionaria», «No es una deserción: sólo creo que el movimiento no está dirigiéndose a la meta que nos habíamos planteado hace tres años».

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