What is data model?

What Does data model Mean

In business, a data model is an abstract structure that documents and organizes information for communication between technical department personnel and other employees. In computing, it differs in its approach, which focuses on planning application development and deciding how data will be stored and accessed.

Often specified in a language , data models determine the structure of information, with the goal of improving communication and accuracy in applications that use and exchange data . They are common grounds in which the members of a work team with different levels of experience and technical knowledge can interact without problems, since these models must have a single interpretation .

Data models are essential for the development of information systems, since through them the necessary compatibility to handle colossal amounts of data can be achieved . Also, if the same structures are used for storage and access, then different applications can share information. A clear example is a registration form on an Internet page, where for our name we can only enter letters, and for our date of birth, numbers with a specific order (such as day, month and year). These restrictions respond to the needs of the database and should be the same in two bases between which information is to be shared .
In contrast to the high efficiency they offer, there is the high cost of developing, operating and maintaining systems and interfaces . Many times, if the quality of the implemented data models is poor, they become obstacles to the growth of a company. Generally, this is obvious when a company that never invested a lot of resources in its digital infrastructure decides that it wants to modernize and discovers that it has such an inefficient and ill-conceived database that it would be easier and less expensive to rebuild everything from scratch. .
According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) a data model can be interpreted as a schema :
* conceptual , which specifies the expressions allowed by the model itself, communicates the essential data definitions and rules to users;

* logical , which describes the semantics of tables and columns, object-oriented classes, etc., represented by a particular manipulation technology (such as the SQL language );

* physical , which details the media on which the information is stored, such as disk partitions .
Types of database models
Table model : its definition may not strictly correspond to a model; It consists of a two-dimensional data list , in which all the elements in a given column are similar and all the values ​​in a row are related to each other.

Hierarchical model : the information is organized in a tree-like structure, nested so that each element can branch into many others, which must be able to be ordered in some way.
Network model : structure the information using two fundamental constructions, called records (records) and sets (sets); the former contain fields and the latter define relationships between the records from one to many (eg: one customer, many products purchased).
Star scheme : it generally consists of a main table , to which many others are associated. A common example is to store the data of a patient in a table, which in turn will be related to another where all their inquiries are recorded, and to another in which their claims or changes in coverage plans are recorded, and so on.

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