What is criticism?

What Does criticism Mean

The criticism is the theory or doctrine that develops research on the possibilities of knowledge, taking into account their sources and their limitations. This system of philosophy was proposed by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

It is important to mention that, although criticism is associated with Kant , there are other kinds of criticism. The so-called Kantian criticism arose from a critique of empiricism and rationalism , considering that these doctrines do not take into account the active role of the individual in the cognitive process.
Kant sought to establish a link between universal laws and the certainty that knowledge is generated from sensory experiences . If knowledge derives from the senses, the facts are individual and it is not possible to know general principles.

Given this, Kant's criticism distinguishes between analytical judgments (which are independent of nature and can be universally established) and synthetic judgments (linked to the experience of a particular event). While analytical judgments are a priori and do not increase knowledge, synthetic judgments do manage to increase knowledge. These synthetic judgments, depending on an experience about a concrete fact, seem to be a posteriori , although Kantargues that science has to generate statements that are not contingent. Scientific activity, therefore, consists in supporting synthetic a priori judgments: establishing affirmations that are valid at the universal level and independent of the enumeration of the verified events.
According to criticism, in short, it can be said that everything in the intelligence comes from the experience of the senses , although not all knowledge comes from what is perceived with the senses. Something is known when the intellectual faculties are applied to the object of knowledge: what is known, in this way, has its origin in the known object, but also in an intellectual structure (composed of the forms of perception, understanding and reason).
The perception is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information so we can represent and understand the environment and the information presented to us. The understanding is defined as "the ability to think", and is the ability that allows us to make a discernment of the way in which the parts of an issue are related to each other and then integrate them. Thanks to reason , we can identify and question concepts, as well as induce or deduce new ones from known ones.

One of the problems that criticism sought to solve was the apparent existence of universal laws , which are expressed in fields such as mathematics. For example, with a simple sum of two whole numbers, it is not easy to claim that there is more than one possible result: it is correct to say that 4 + 3 always yields 7 . Let us not forget that this doctrine proposes that it is only through what the senses experience that we can access knowledge, without the influence of general principles, but simply individual objects and events.
Criticism is a philosophical system according to which epistemology is a fundamental and independent discipline, prior to any other, which is why it is necessary to define it. The Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that focuses on knowledge as an object of study.
Among the main problems that epistemology addresses are the historical, psychological and sociological circumstances that lead to obtaining knowledge, as well as the criteria by which it can be justified or invalidated. It also deals with clearly and precisely defining concepts such as reality , truth , justification and objectivity . It is possible that its emergence took place in Ancient Greece, initially at the hands of Plato and Parmenides, among other philosophers.

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