What is commoner?

What Does commoner Mean

Plebeyo , which comes from plebeius (a Latin word), is an adjective that is applied to that or that which belongs to the commoners . The plebs, for their part, is the social class that occupies the lowest area in the pyramid of society .

The term was frequent in ancient times, when social classes were well differentiated and mobility between one and the other was impossible. Back then, it was easy to distinguish between the nobles , the religious , the military, and the commoners .
According to the terminology used in classical Roman historiography, the commoner had no gens , social system or civil grouping of Ancient Rome, comprised of a number of families who shared a surname; In other words, this figure of society (the plebs) did not have its origin in the patrician families, those that were responsible for founding Rome and, at least initially, were not considered part of the Roman people or their curiae (subdivision of the people similar to a tribe).

Continuing with this conception of the term plebeian, its etymology suggests for certain scholars the connotation of "son of the earth ", without a defined ancestor; this is opposed to the patricians, who were linked to the Olympian gods, belonging to ancient Greece, among whom were Zeus, Poseidon, Ares, Apollo, Heracles and Athena.
It is important to clarify that the condition of foreigners ceased to have validity over time, and commoners were considered part of Rome, citizens with political rights (although not as many as other classes) and obligations (mainly, to fulfill military service).
Traditionally, the inscription of this social class in public records is attributed to Servio Tulio, the sixth king of the Empire, who ruled between 578 and 537 BC. C., until his daughter, Tulia, took his life so that his son-in-law, Tarquinio el Soberbio, could occupy his throne. For this reform, Servius relied on an old classification that recognized, among others, the following trades, which became part of the common people of the ancient world: merchants, flute players, artisans, shoemakers, potters, goldsmiths, carpenters, tanners and broncists.
One of the main characteristics of the commoners was that they could not exercise certain civil rights that were reserved exclusively for the rest of the classes. This led, over time, to various revolts and struggles through which commoners demanded more rights and equal treatment.
It should be noted, however, that not all commoners were the same. Some members of the plebs were rich and had great social influence; others, on the other hand, did not have any property and lived in absolute poverty. Within the plebs, it is possible to distinguish between the following four groups:

* homines novi : they were not many but they had great influence and important capitals. From this group emerged successful military and politicians;
* equites : they had enough capital to carry out military service in cavalry;
* adsidui : small owners with the obligation to enlist in the infantry regiments, for which they used to incur too many debts and become, as a consequence, clients of a rich man;
* proletarii : they had no good.
At present, the notion of commoner is sometimes used to mark an opposition between people who lack noble titles and those who are part of the monarchy or the nobility. When the Argentinian Máxima Zorreguieta married Prince William , the emphasis was on the union between a commoner and a member of the monarchy of the Netherlands . The same thing happened when the commoner Letizia Ortiz married Prince Felipe , the son of the King of Spain .

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