What is asthenozoospermia?

Asenozoospermia is a term that means reduced sperm motility. Sperm motility, in turn, refers to how well the sperm move. The ability of sperm to move forward is called forward progression. In general, spermatozoa are distinguished by their progressive and non-progressive motility or by their total immotility. When sperm have low motility or are immobile, it can negatively affect male fertility.

Fertility, or the ability to conceive a child, can be hampered by many things. Both men and women can experience infertility, which can be caused by a large number of factors. Along with asthenozoospermia, other causes of male infertility include no sperm, low sperm count, or abnormal sperm. Additional factors that can affect infertility are health problems and environmental conditions.

Male infertility can be diagnosed through many different means, including a physical exam and disclosure of medical history. Asthenozoospermia is usually verified by semen analysis, performed by a fertility specialist. For this exam, several samples may be collected for examination to ensure the accuracy of the results.

During the analysis, the samples are examined based on six different aspects that make up healthy sperm. Four of these aspects are concentration, morphology and volume, in addition to a standard fluid test. Concentration deals with the ratio of sperm per milliliter; Morphology refers to the shape of the sperm. Volume means the total volume of the semen sample, and the standard fluid test examines the thickness and color of the sperm.

The other two aspects analyzed in semen analysis involve sperm motility: the percentage of sperm movement within the semen and a count of the total number of moving sperm. Motility is determined by the ability of the sperm to reach the egg for fertilization to occur. Progressive motility means that the sperm are active, either moving linearly or in large circles. In non-progressive motility, the sperm are active although there is no forward progression. When the sperm do not move, it is known as immotility.

Since there are several factors that can affect fertility, there are different methods of medical treatment to improve the chances of conceiving a child. With asthenozoospermia, the problem lies in the inability of the sperm to move towards the egg. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a treatment method that could help with this dilemma, as it involves injecting sperm directly into the egg. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common form of ART.

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