What is aquaculture?

What Does aquaculture Mean

The notion of aquaculture refers to a set of techniques used to cultivate water species , both animals and plants. These are procedures that allow you to breed aquatic organisms for different purposes.

Aquaculture can take place in salt water or fresh water . In some cases, specialists work under controlled and artificially arranged conditions. They can also carry out their work in the natural environment, intervening in different ways.
It is important to note that the origins of aquaculture are very ancient. Several millennia before Christ , in China , practices of this type were already being developed , especially with carp fish. In medieval times, aquaculture began to become popular also on the European continent.

More precisely, there is reference to examples of aquaculture dating from 3800 BC. C .; two millennia later the legislature already protected the fishermen from thieves, and in 475 BC. C. a treaty about the carpiculture was signed.
When nature allows it, aquaculture takes place in lagoons, rivers or seas, for example. By appealing to different structures, it is possible to plant mussels, oysters and other species on the seabed. These extensive systems , however, are not the most common. Aquaculture is usually carried out on a semi- intensive or intensive basis , even in artificial pools or ponds.
Human intervention and the use of technology take place to a much greater degree in intensive and semi-intensive farming systems than in extensive ones: there is greater control, but the yield is also higher.
A clear example of a semi-intensive aquaculture system is the use of floating cages to cultivate fish in lakes or in the sea. Although in this case the water is not supplied through a pumping system , since it is the one that is naturally in the environment, it is necessary to add food and control the crop.
Channels in a semi-open or open circuit, and ponds, on the other hand, can also be used to carry out a cultivation system of this type, since they make it possible to take advantage of running water ; This is very often seen in truticulture (trout farming).
On the other hand, there are the so-called intensive crops , which are usually carried out in facilities that are not directly in the natural environment, but in pools or properly isolated tanks with technical systems that are responsible for capturing and recirculating the water. Through this type of system, both the environment and the individuals are subjected to absolute control .

As can be deduced from the characteristics, intensive aquaculture is much more costly at an economic level than semi-intensive aquaculture, and in general than any of the less technology- dependent systems ; In addition, it requires much more control throughout the process to generate satisfactory results. However, this is offset by higher yields and remarkable productive potential, as proven by various experiences in the field.
By developing aquaculture isolated from the natural environment, specialists can control the different variables with greater precision, a particularity that helps increase productivity .
The salmon (farmed salmon and trout), the carpicultura ( tents ) and shrimp (shrimp) are some of the most common variants of aquaculture, an activity of great economic importance as it allows food sources and resources different industries.
There are also auxiliary crops , which are used to gather the necessary food for the individuals of the main crops, such as mollusks or fish; In this group we find microinvertebrates (such as cladocerans, Thamnocephalus, Dendrocephalus , Artemia salina and rotifers) and microalgae (among which Tetraselmis, Isochrisis and Chlorella stand out ).

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