What is an Epic?
What Does Epic Mean
We explain what an epic is, how it originated and some examples of this ancient literary genre.
What is an Epic?
The works of the ancient literary genre of the epic are known as epic, in which the different foundational narrative works , long-term, that make up the mythological, political or cultural tradition of a nation are inscribed . It is one of the oldest known story forms, which generally includes a set of heroic, mythical and mythological episodes , in which the world vision of a culture is built and generally begins . The focus of the epic story is always a warrior protagonist (the hero) endowed with extraordinary virtues and involved in wonderful, fantastic or magical events , and whose figure usually embodies the set of moral , ethical and political values of the community , which is why which it identifies with him and transmits his supposed exploits to future generations. Seen this way, an epic does not aspire to be a real or faithful chronicle of what happened , but rather a story seasoned with fiction, in the style of myths , which has a cultural and poetic value, rather than a historical and documentary one. That is why the gods, ritual practices, local geography , monsters of their imaginary and other elements usually appear in it that give the community an exalted notion of their origin. See also: Greek Mythology
Origin of the epic
The various human cultures have produced a very varied set of epics, given that having stories that explain who you are, where you come from and what differentiates you from one another, seems to be a social and imaginary need to civilizations. It is not surprising, then, that many of them predate the invention of writing, and their stories were initially transmitted orally , collected and recited by rhapsodies or bards, and accompanied by music . Reason why they are usually composed in verses . Later they would be transcribed and kept on papyri, books or tablets , often modifying significant details of their narrative. The first known epic comes from the Sumerian culture. His warrior hero and king of the city of Uruk is Gilgamesh, and in his story elements of the ancient Mesopotamian tradition emerge, such as the universal flood or the search for eternal life, also present in other traditions, such as the biblical one. The poem G i lgamesh preserved in tablets, using cuneiform writing, dating back to the year 2750 BC
Examples of epic
Some of the most famous epics of humanity are, along with that of Gilgamesh, the following:
- The Iliad . Narrated by Homer, of whom it is not known if he really existed, but it is assumed that he was a blind slave dedicated to oral narration . It recounts some of the 10 years that the war between Greece and the city of Troy lasted , as well as the defeat of the latter and the struggle between numerous heroes on both sides.
- The Odyssey . Also recounted by Homer, it tells of Odysseus's (Roman Ulysses) long and uneven return home, after the end of the Trojan War. It is a 10-year adventure that culminates in a return home, where his wife Penelope was waiting for him.
- The Aeneid . Composed by Virgil, a poet of the Roman Empire, it tells of the flight of the Trojan hero Aeneas during the burning of his city, as well as the journey he then undertakes through the Mediterranean, until finally reaching Italy, on the banks of the Tiber River, where he would found the coming Roman race.
- The Shahnameh . Known as the Book of Kings , it was composed by the Persian Aeda Ferdousi. It tells the story of ancient Iran and the people of the Sassanids.
- The Mahabharata. Epic of Indian origin, written in Sanskrit and key to the founding of the Hindu religion . It is one of the longest epic tales on record.