What are the different types of kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer is a disease in which kidney cells exhibit abnormal and uncontrolled growth. The kidney is a paired organ located in the back of the abdomen that is responsible for urine production, regulates blood pressure and volume, regulates the concentration of water in the body, blood filtration, and the reabsorption of salts, sugars and water in the bloodstream. . There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), transitional cell carcinoma, Wilms tumor, and renal sarcoma. Renal cell carcinoma is by far the most commonly diagnosed kidney cancer.

Renal cell carcinoma, also called hypernephroma, affects the cells that line small tube-shaped structures called proximal convoluted tubules, located in the nephrons of the kidney. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. This type of kidney cancer often has no symptoms until it reaches more advanced stages, when it may begin to show hematuria or blood in the urine, back pain, abdominal mass, weight loss, fever, or high blood pressure. If the tumor is located in the kidney and the patient can withstand surgery, doctors prefer to remove the cancer surgically in a procedure known as a nephrectomy. This kidney cancer is very difficult to control once it has metastasized or spread to other tissues, but it can be treated with interleukin-2 (IL-2) drugs or kinase inhibitor drugs.

Transitional cell carcinoma is a kidney cancer, although caused by smoking that originates in the renal pelvis, where the kidney articulates with the ureter. The ureter is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. Like other types of cancer, transitional cell carcinoma has a better prognosis the earlier it is diagnosed. A prognosis is the doctor's prediction of the patient's chances of recovery. If the tumor is localized, doctors will likely perform a nephrectomy, often removing the affected kidney, ureter, and part of the bladder.

Wilms tumor, also called nephroblastoma, is a kidney cancer that affects young children, usually between the ages of two and five. These tumors are quite rare and probably result from a genetic mutation in immature kidney cells. They often have no symptoms until they are older, when they may start to show symptoms of a palpable mass in the abdomen, blood in the urine, weight loss, fever, stomach pain, or high blood pressure. This disease often has a good prognosis and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

A renal sarcoma is a rare kidney cancer that originates from the connective tissue of the kidney. This kidney tumor may present with symptoms of hematuria or blood in the urine, a palpable lump in the abdomen, and lower back pain. If the kidney tumor is localized and the patient can withstand surgery, doctors will probably recommend nephrectomy. Chemotherapy and radiation may also be used.

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