What are the different types of genital prolapse?

Genital prolapse, also called pelvic prolapse, is a medical condition in which the pelvic organs slip out of their normal positions and fall into the vaginal canal, sometimes protruding from the vagina. This usually affects women who have weakened or injured their pelvic floor due to pregnancy, childbirth, hysterectomy, a sport that puts chronic stress on the pelvic floor, chronic medical conditions, such as obesity, that put pressure on the abdomen or due to genetic predisposition. Types of genital prolapse include cystocele, which affects the bladder, enterocele, which is associated with prolapse of the small intestine, rectocele or prolapse of the rectum, uterine prolapse, which occurs when the uterus slips out of place , urethrocele or prolapse. of the urethra and vaginal chamber prolapse, which occurs when the upper part of the vagina descends into the vaginal canal. One of these types of genital prolapse can occur independently or with other types of prolapse.

The pelvic floor is a group of muscles and connective tissue that supports the pelvic organs and helps control urination. If it is damaged, the organs it supports, such as the uterus and bladder, are at risk of slipping out of place and down into the vaginal canal. The most common cause of pelvic floor injuries is pregnancy and childbirth, although symptoms of genital prolapse may not appear until after menopause, when the pelvic floor begins to weaken further due to the drop in estrogen, a hormone natural female reproductive Other causes, such as pelvic surgery or chronic pressure on the pelvic floor, may also show no symptoms until later in life.

Symptoms vary depending on the type of genital prolapse. However, one of the most telltale signs is a lump in the vagina or a lump outside the vagina. In cystocele, in which the support structure between the vaginal wall and the bladder weakens, allowing the bladder to drop, the patient may experience a sensation of pressure in the vagina, pain, and urine leakage during sexual intercourse, problems controlling urination, especially with pressure, for example when coughing, frequent bladder infections and feeling the need to urinate, even after urinating. A patient with a urethrocele, in which the urethra falls into the vagina, often has no symptoms or mild versions of the symptoms associated with a cystocele.

Enteroceles, in which the small intestine slips out of place and falls into the upper part of the vagina, occur most often in women who have had a hysterectomy. These women may experience abdominal pressure and lower back pain that is relieved by lying down, pressure in the vagina, pain during intercourse, and a vaginal lump. In a rectocele, when the tissue that supports the rectum weakens and allows the rectum to push against the vaginal wall, a woman may experience a bulge of tissue through the vaginal opening and mild discomfort, but the condition is usually not painful and often occurs without symptoms Vaginal vault prolapse, a type of genital prolapse in which the upper part of the vagina loses its structural integrity and drops into the vaginal canal, presents with pelvic pressure, lower back discomfort, incontinence, vaginal bleeding, and a bulge in the vagina or protruding from the vaginal opening.

Treatments also vary depending on the type and severity of the genital prolapse. In some cases, pelvic floor exercise, which may require the help of a physical therapist to do correctly, and reducing stress on the pelvic floor, for example by losing weight, can help control genital prolapse. A doctor may insert a pessary, a small device inserted into the vagina to reinforce the pelvic wall near the top of the vagina, as a short-term or long-term solution. In some cases, the patient needs surgery to remedy the symptoms of genital prolapse and restore sexual, bladder, and bowel function. Some surgeries may include removal of the uterus, or hysterectomy, in women with uterine prolapse who no longer want children, vaginal vault repair, and vaginal repair.

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