What are Research Methods?
What Does Research Methods Mean
We explain what the research methods are and which are the main ones. Also, what are the characteristics of each one.
What are research methods?
An investigation is an activity dedicated to obtaining new knowledge or its application to solve specific problems , through an understandable, communicable and reproducible procedure. It can be dedicated to different areas of human knowledge, and involve different types of reasoning and procedures, depending on the research method chosen.
The term method comes from the Greek meta -, "towards", and hodós , "way", which suggests that its meaning is "the most suitable way to an end". That is, a method is a procedure that we choose to obtain a predetermined purpose .
Consequently, research methods are the different models of procedures that can be used in a specific investigation , taking into account its needs, that is, the nature of the phenomenon we wish to investigate .
A perfect example of this is the scientific method a series of procedures of type logical and experimental that allow test a hypothesis by controlled, repeatable and precise experiences, that is, by what we know today as science .
It can serve you:
- Qualitative method
- Quantitative method
- Analytical method
What are the research methods?
Broadly speaking, research methods are classified as logical and empirical . Logical research methods involve the use of thinking and reasoning to carry out deductions , analysis, and synthesis .
On the other hand, empirical research methods approach knowledge through replicable, controlled and documented experiences, which we know under the name of experiments .
In addition, we can identify the following methods:
- Logical-deductive method. It consists of applying general principles to particular cases, starting from certain trial links. This happens by: 1) finding unknown principles from those already known, and 2) discovering unknown consequences of already known principles.
- Direct deductive method. Employed primarily in logic and formal reasoning, it draws a unique and true conclusion from a finite set of proven premises.
- Indirect deductive method. It is the method based on the logic of the syllogism, that is, on the comparison of two initial premises to obtain a final conclusion . Generally, the initial premise is general or universal, the second premise is particular, and the conclusion can be one or the other.
- Hypothetical deductive method. It is about the method that starts from an initial hypothesis or explanation, to later obtain particular conclusions from it, which will then be experimentally verified. In other words, it includes an initial step of empirical inferences ( observation , for example) that allow the deduction of an initial hypothesis that is then subjected to experimentation .
- Inductive logic method . It proposes the reverse path: from particular premises, universal or general conclusions are inferred, either through complete inductions (all the elements that make up the object of study are considered) or incomplete (only some of the elements that compose it are considered) .
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