The history of the Internet

What Does Internet history Mean

We explain everything about the history of the Internet, its timeline and the origin of the World Wide Web. Also, the dotcom bubble.

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The internet became popular in the 1990s.

The history of the Internet

We all today know what the Internet is , to the point that entire generations can no longer imagine a world devoid of this great global communications network , whose history is quite recent.

The first antecedent of the Internet was telecommunications , whose first modern representative is the telegraph of the late nineteenth century. On the other hand, the invention of computers was also necessary , the first copies of which were themselves calculating machines created for war purposes during the Second World War.

So thanks to many discoveries and inventions, in the middle of the 20th century, the first ideas regarding communications networks (and later, computerized networks) appeared.

The first mention of a computerized social interconnection, under the concept of networking , comes from a series of memoranda by the American Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (1915-1990), nicknamed "Lick", at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in the United States. In those memoranda, dated August 1962, "Lick" argued in favor of what he called the "Galactic Network".

In the 1950s and 1960s, modest computer networks existed , dedicated to airport reservation systems (SABER) and defense and military control systems (AUTODIN I). In addition, by the 1960s, computer manufacturers had incorporated semiconductor technology into their products .

Thus, new ways of managing time and resources were born, allowing large computers to "serve" different users at the same time, so quickly and efficiently that it gave the impression of being dedicated to each one of them exclusively. Hence the idea of having computers "guests" ( hosts ) and servers ( servers ).

One of the first multipurpose computerized systems was the ARPANET , which emerged in 1969, a military project of the United States Department of Defense. This system connected different users on the computers of the different universities in the country. At the head of this project was Joseph Licklider himself.

That is why it became essential to create communication protocols that would allow such different computers to "speak" the same language, so to speak.

In 1973 ARPANET and NORSAR (a Norwegian computerized network for the detection of earthquakes and nuclear explosions), began exchanging computerized information, just before Great Britain also joined the project. Finally, the need for common communication protocols led to the birth of TCP / IP protocols in 1982 .

During the 1980s, the Internet grew and slowly opened up to the commercial world , although still under criteria that were not too clear. ARPANET continued to grow and connect with other foreign networks throughout the world, detaching itself from its military powers in the process, until its closure in the early 1990s.

Then, another similar project of the American National Science Foundation absorbed the old ARPANET, to create NSFNET, the great network of scientists and universities. This is the embryo of what we know today as the Internet, which in 1990 already had 100,000 servers in the world.

The term "Internet" was proposed in the 1990s , as an acronym for Interconnected Netwoks , but there are also those who interpret it as International NET (international network).

See also: History of the computer

Birth of the World Wide Web (WWW)

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Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau created the World Wide Web.

The World Wide Web , known at the time as the “global spider web”, was an invention of the Englishman Tim Berners-Lee (1955-) and the Belgian Robert Cailliau (1947-), who worked at CERN ( European Council for Nuclear Research).

It responded to the need to devise a system for recovering the enormous amount of information available in the then nascent Internet, linking logical information and textual content programmed in "tags" that, later, an interpreter program was capable of "reading" and displaying the information.

This is how the first programs capable of doing this emerged, called "search engines" or browsers , and which we now know as " browsers ". The first browser was Mosaic, emerged in 1993 , created by the American Marc Andreesen, the same one who later would create the first commercial browser, Netscape.

These types of programs were key to the dissemination of the Internet, its use by non-specialized users, and therefore in its global reach that we know today.

The dotcom bubble

It was known as the dot-com bubble or the dot-com bubble to a period of enormous financial growth of western companies linked to the Internet , and of the then called “new economy”.

This boom occurred between 1997 and 2001 , and was characterized by the massive emergence of new companies linked to the digital sector, known as dotcom companies (a term derived from their Internet domains, ending in .com ). Many of them had spectacular bankruptcies throughout this period, especially when the bubble burst at the beginning of the new century.

The so-called "crisis of the dot-com bubble" was predicted by many investors from its inception, in part due to the volatility of the financial market, which in stock markets such as New York registered a price above 5,000 points in March 2000.

However, in October 2002 it registered 1,300 points, even less than it originally had in 1996. During that period, between 2000 and 2003, around 4,850 companies linked to the Internet disappeared , due to bankruptcy or because they had been absorbed by stronger ones.

Internet history timeline

The following is an ordered chronology of the major events in the history of the Internet:

  • 1958 - The first modem capable of transmitting data over a telephone line is created at BELL laboratories.
  • 1964 - First conference on the ARPANET project.
  • 1969 - Leonard Kleinrock, a proponent of packet data switching theory since 1961, connects the first 4 computers at American universities.
  • 1971 - ARPANET now includes 23 computers in the United States. Roy Thompson sends the first email ever.
  • 1973 - Great Britain and Norway connect with ARPANET.
  • 1974 - Vint Cerf and Bob Khan use the term "Internet" for the first time.
  • 1976 - Coaxial cables are invented that will give a great boost to the digital connection.
  • 1978 - The first unsolicited email message ( SPAM ) is sent to 600 ARPANET users.
  • 1982 - TCP / IP protocols are introduced to the network.
  • 1984 - The network has about 1000 computers connected.
  • 1989 - The network has around 100,000 connected computers.
  • 1990 - ARPANET closed and the commercial Internet appeared.
  • 1991 - Public launch of the World Wide Web.
  • 1992 - The network has around 1,000,000 computers connected.
  • 1993 - The first browser, NCSA Mosaic, appears.
  • 1994 - Foundation of Yahoo and its search engine , Lycos. Geocities appears, one of the first online communities on the network.
  • 1995 - Launch of Microsoft Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
  • 1996 - The network has around 10,000,000 computers connected. The first cell phone with network access appears, the Nokia 9000 Communicator.
  • 1998 - Google is born and becomes the largest search engine online.
  • 1999 - Blogs become popular in the online community, especially since the launch of Blogger.com.
  • 2000 - The rumor of financial collapse due to the Y2k phenomenon spreads, according to which computers would date everything back to 1900. Nothing happens.
  • 2001 - The dot-com bubble bursts.
  • 2003 - The largest of the online encyclopedias appears: Wikipedia, and the first proper social network: MySpace.
  • 2004 - Google announces its email service: Gmail. Mark Zuckerberg founds Facebook and begins the “boom” of social networks.
  • 2005 - YouTube is founded.
  • 2008 - The first participation in elections via Internet in the United States is celebrated.
  • 2016 - The implementation of the most recent web protocol, IPv6, begins, replacing the IPv4 in force since its implementation in 1983 in ARPANET.

Continue with: Generations of computers

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